Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Introduction Mining is an economic practice that has led to economic success of some countries. Others have treasured mining since it is the best way of obtaining rare resources. Mining is a task that involves massive investment of capital besides being a risky venture. Disasters can occur naturally or result from human error. Jefferson Island Salt Mine experienced an unforgettable disaster when Lake Peigneur in 1980 collapsed. Several companies had established mine while others were drilling when the event occurred.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Jefferson Island Salt Mine Louisiana Lake Peigneur 1980 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This report will state and describe what happened in Lake Peigneur in 1980. It will give eye witness reports of the disaster. It will also give different theories of what happened in the mine that fateful day. Then the report will give an opinion of what happened and why it happen ed. This report will state the ethical theory and laws made to ensure that it does not occur again. Stating what happened in Lake Peigneur 1980 Lake Peigneur was a fresh water lake that was hit by a disaster that led to drastic changes in the compositions of the lake. In accordance with Wilson Brothers Corporation (2006, p. 1) a salt mining company came close to the third level of Diamond Crystal Salt Mine Company which had been mining in the lake. The men working in the mine noticed abnormality of the mines and noticed that the ground was becoming unsteady. They were drilling under the lake in search of oil. They argue that it is human error that led to the disaster which followed after the men drilling accidentally made a mistake while drilling. The mistake is believed to have emanated in the position of the drill. On the other hand the blame is shifted to the accuracy of the maps used. It is argued that the maps may have been faulty and determining the positions using the inaccur ate maps led to miscalculations. While performing their duties the employees noticed that something had gone wrong and all of them evacuated the mining site soonest possible. One of the employees had noticed that water rising in his feet and he notified the other. The employees had performed an evacuation drill in less than a week and so they were aware of what to do. From a distance, they watched the event happen. The drilling platform sunk very deep close to 50m high. The nearby trees, terrains and barges were all swallowed in by the lake. The mine was enormous and it absorbed water and turned into a temporary inlet. This was as a result of a hole that was formed during the drilling. The hole enlarged as more contents of water and other objects that were surrounding were swallowed in the lake. All the employees escaped in time and no lives were lost in the accident. This is because they were alerted in time and had already practiced how to respond in case of an emergency. The salt used by the Diamond crystal salt mine company to distinguish one level form another were also absorbed. This led to the collapse of the mine. Observers say that the lake level sunk so deep and that the surrounding activities were also distracted. This was due to the fast moving water entering the mine and the noises caused by the geysers.Advertising Looking for report on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Another observation form the disaster was the geysers that followed after. They erupted from the mine as a result of compressed air that had occupied the mining canals erupted. More so the depth of the lake increased from the disaster in Jefferson Island (Loa Apos.com 2007, p. 1). Other water bodies like the Delcabre Canal and Vermillion Bay were also affected. The flow of water was reversed as the water was filling in Lake Peigneur. The water from these water bodies was salty hence this contributed to th e lake becoming salty. Experts believe that the water became salty as a result of the water that entered from the two water bodies. They reject the idea that the salt mine caused the lake to be salty. It is important to note that the actual mistake that happened can hardly be pin pointed because the lakes state after the disaster could not allow for investigations that would bear fruit. This is because the evidence was swept away when the lake sunk to form a spectacular water fall longer than those in Lousiana. The causes could either be that the employees drilling the mine miscalculated or the maps that they used were faulty. As mentioned the evidence cannot be obtained. Lake Peigneur was closed in 1986. Then the location was rehabilitated and used for storage of natural gas. The residents have made complains concerning their safety. Also they have raised concerns about bubbling that is heard from the lake from time to time. The reason for opposing any activities in the lake is to avoid another disaster. They argue that drilling again in the near the lake may lead to more harm to the ecosystem. This was after the drilling men of the Texas Company together with the Wilson brothers settled the matter outside court. They compensated the damage done to the Diamond Crystal Salt Mine Company before closing down. Eye witness information The employees and a fisherman witnessed the disaster begin. The employees had been working in the evening and others were to begin their shift in the morning. Those who had been drilling in the night were the people who were the first to notice that they were drilling the salt mine. They waited for the men in the morning shift and work continued. The drill had been stuck more than a thousand feet below. Attempts to drill slowly free the drill they heard loud popping sound and the rig tilted in the direction of water. Close to ten miners were at the mine where the hole was drilled. After the alarm they used the steel cage to run for t heir safety. Another group of forty performing their duties in the forth level were could not use the third level which was filled with water. They used carts and motor vehicles to get to the level where they could use the elevator to go to the surface. They all survived.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Jefferson Island Salt Mine Louisiana Lake Peigneur 1980 specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A fisherman together with his nephew saw the water drains drastically while they were fishing at the lake. The boat he was using became stuck in the mud after water was drained. They walked through the mud and made their way out, before the eruptions began. A woman was also injured during the disaster while running away. She sustained bruises and injured her back. After the disaster, the washed away gardens were rebuilt. This was after the pressure of the stabilized. The grounds were leveled and activities around the lake co ntinued. Later on the lake was found to be deeper and the ecosystem had been affected. The levels of salt and nutrients had to be regulated to support the lakes ecosystem. Different theories of the event Since the evidence was swept away in the lake, different views concerning what transpired emerged. As already noted, men working for the Texco Company were drilling close to the edge of the third level. The levels were done using the salts and they should have been aware of the level since they had been working in the site. The men then drilled through the third level although they knew that the salt dome edge meant that there was a salt mine. The argument is that they were not aware of the exact place that the mine location was and so they drilled unknowingly. They ended up drilling the actual location of the salt. When they noticed what had happened they attempted to conduct the Diamond Crystal Salt Mine Company. The communication failed hence the disaster was inevitable. On the o ther hand some people believe that the map used was not correct. The experts who were drilling had followed map correctly. The drilling was based on the information that the map provided and that they believed what the map showed was the correct position for drilling. This theory blames the map the drilling team used (Loa Apos.com 2007, p. 1). Opinion of what happened and why it happened that way The drilling of the mines was done by professionals who had been trained. It is likely that the team noticed that they could be drilling the mine in the third level. The miner saw that they were drilling near the third level and should have considered making consultations before going on. What happened is that the miners ignored the signs that might drill into a mine and continued. The accident could have been prevented if the miners were keen. Ethical theory and laws made to ensure that it does not occur again The miners should conduct mining in such a way that they are safe and ensure tha t there is safety to the environment and the people living close to it. They should also note that the activities may have impact to the environment and take measures that ensure that the ecosystem and climate are not affected. More so, mining could be an important channel for generating revenue hence they should enable mining to be sustainable. Therefore those who engage in mining should uphold good practice in mining.Advertising Looking for report on environmental studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More FTN Associates Ltd (2002, p. I) conducted a study that would lead to the formulation and implementation of a water act. Based on the water act that requires water bodies to follow standards set on the quality of water all as well as maximum amount of pollution of the water body, Lake Peigneur was found to be neglecting the act. It was also argued that the nutrients and other minerals in the water were not balanced and that animals and people using the water were endangered. The neighboring community in Lousiana has noticed the laxity of implementation of laws. They have protested against possible mining activities form miners from beginning the exercise again. They have also rejected the idea of making the storage natural gas in the lake. Their efforts have not succeeded and there is natural gas storage in the lake. For this reason they fear that miners might begin their mining activities once more. Suggestions on what should be in place of laws The disaster led to many loses among them the destruction of a fresh water lake. It also resulted in to loss of property of the companies that established mines and the surrounding environment which had to stop business for a long time. If there was a law that guided the process of drilling other mines the human error problem would have been prevented. The natural resources should not be entirely left in the hands of economist. Other stakeholders such as neighboring communities, the government and the environmental regulatory bodies both national and international should be involved. Policies that will allow preservation of the natural resources should be encouraged. Moreover, companies that are mining within the same location should be in good communication so as to avoid manmade disasters like Lake Peigneur 1980 disaster. What can be done to prevent it from happening again? It is possible to prevent catastrophes. Laws concerning the activities that take place in gelatins natural environment may be formulated and foll owed strictly. The standards and regulations that are also given can be applied strictly to avoid harming the ecosystem. Furthermore, the miners must include the expert as well as the authorities. When working close to other mines like in the case in Lake Peigneur, companies can communicate and be present when others are making own mines close to other mines. This way a person who knows the exact location of the mine would help those mining close to the other mine by showing them the actual place. In case something goes wrong, like damage of the other mine, it is possible to conduct the other company fastest possible to deal problem. Conclusion The Lake Peigneur 1980 disaster was an irreversible phenomenon that could have been prevented. The disaster turned a fresh water lake into a salty water lake. The miners drilling accidentally made a mistake that led to the sinking of the lake into a deep lake. The sinking of the lake affected other water bodies that redirected its water tempo rarily. The destruction was enormous and the companies took their grievances to court. There were no deaths and eye witnesses say that the water was draining quickly, there was noise and there were damages. The cause of the accident cannot be determined due to lack of evidence argue that the minors drilled into the third level knowing that a mine was close. On the other hand another theory argues that the map that was used was faulty. The miners would have prevented the accident from occurring since they were aware that they were on the third level and the mine was close. Laws to manage the waters of Lake Peigneur have been made to save the ecosystem. Lake Peigneur remains a deeper lake than before. Communities that surround it have opposed the rehabilitation of the mine. They believe that if laws are not articulated the lake might be made a mine again. They do not support the natural gas storage that is done in the lake. Reference List FTN Associates Ltd. (2002). Lake Peigneur Tmdl s for Dissolved Oxygen And Nutrients. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/ Loa Apos.com. (2007). Lake Peigneur, the biggest man-made vortex ever. Retrieved from http://www.losapos.com/lakepeigneur Wilson Brothers Corporation. (2006). Lake Peigneur. Web. This report on Jefferson Island Salt Mine Louisiana Lake Peigneur 1980 was written and submitted by user Erica Cruz to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Looking At The Carer Prospects Of Foster Care Social Work Essay Essays Looking At The Carer Prospects Of Foster Care Social Work Essay Essay Looking At The Carer Prospects Of Foster Care Social Work Essay Essay This undertaking is based on a Foster attention appraisal of a prospective carer undertaken as a pupil societal worker. It gives an overview of my appraisal from allotment to cloture due to concerns. Although instantly allocated another more fruitful appraisal, I have chosen to look at this unsuccessful appraisal as I believe it taught me more as a pupil about my pattern. An bureau description is foremost provided to give the reader a image of the squad which should set my function into context. This is followed by the background and aims of my work. The chief text follows the natural patterned advance of my work from be aftering to rating. I will analyze my work placing the societal work subjects, issues and theories that guided my pattern. Reflection acknowledges that we are portion of what we are sing ( Schon, 1983 ) ; looking at our relationships with service users beneath the surface ( Payne, 2002 ) . I will therefore reflect throughout this undertaking, instead than strictly at the terminal, as this is what I of course did in my pattern. This will take to a brooding rating of my pattern and the deductions it had for both me and the service user. The bureau I was placed with was a statutory Foster attention squad within the local authorization s kids s services. Although the squad works more straight with surrogate carers it serves kids in demand between the ages of 0 and 16 and is hence classified as a Tier 4 service as shown below. Fostering services in this local authorization were originally integrated amongst other service user groups, regulated by the Boarding-Out Regulations ( 1955 ) . These ordinances caused ambiguity by promoting surrogate carers to handle surrogate kids as their ain ( Triseliotis et al. , 1995 ) . In the 1970 s, with the altering accent to the professionalization of fosterage, the squad bit by bit became a separate division. The 1955 ordinances were finally updated with the Boarding-out of Children ( Foster Placement ) Regulations ( 1988 ) which were later absorbed into the Children Act ( 1989 ) ordinances. Merely a few old ages subsequently the Foster Placement ( Children ) Regulations ( 1991 ) were introduced which changed the focal point of appraisal from families to single Foster parents. However, what both ordinances were missing was met in the constitution of the Fostering Services Regulations ( FCR ) ( 2002 ) and National Minimum Standards ( NMS ) ( Department of Health ( DoH ) , 2002 ) . These come under subdivisions 22 and 48 and 23 and 49 of the Care Standards Act ( 2000 ) severally. This changed the ordinance of the bureau from the local authorization itself to the National Care Standards Commission ( NCSC ) . The NCSC inspects how the bureau recruits, buttockss, supervises and trains surrogate carers. These four countries describe my function as a oversing societal worker within the squad. Background to the Case Monica is a 55 twelvemonth old female who had contacted the fosterage bureau with an involvement in going a surrogate carer. The procedure from public involvement to approved surrogate carer is complex and thorough. Each local Foster attention service will hold a similar but somewhat different process and the squad I was placed with used the procedure shown in figure 1. Initial Interest Initial Home Visit Application signifier sent and completed by Applicant Full Assessment by Social Worker taking to Fostering Panel Approved Foster Carer is allocated a Social Worker and begins furthering Figure 1: The Fostering Assessment Process When seeking to visualize the appraisal procedure for the reader, I felt a pyramid was the most appropriate. This is foremost because the broadness represents the greater personal investing a prospective carer must set into the fosterage procedure and secondly the deeper into their life a societal worker will and must travel. At each phase a prospective campaigner may hold a different societal worker. The initial place visit with Monica was conducted by another societal worker. The intent of this visit was to acquire a snap shooting of Monica s suitableness and motive to further. The societal workers study is so presented to senior staff with recommendations and a determination is made as to whether an application signifier should be sent. Once returned, the following measure is to travel through a procedure that combines elements of appraisal and readying ( McColgan, 1991 ) . This is where my engagement with Monica began. Aims of the Work As good as strong fond regards to household members, surrogate carers or residential attention workers are truly of import for kids in attention, as these are the people who have the most impact on their daily experiences ( DCSF, 2008, p.11 ) Foster carers are cardinal to many kids and immature people s experience of attention. It is indispensable that we value and back up them and guarantee that they are decently equipped with the necessary scope of accomplishments ( DfES, 2007, p.8-9 ) When measuring Monica I held the two statements above steadfastly in my head to utilize in times of uncertainness but besides clarity. It is good known that the enlisting and keeping of Foster carers has been systematically debatable for local governments ( Association of Directors of Social Services, 1997 ; Bebbington and Miles, 1990 ; Colton et al. 2008 ; Hill, 2000 ; NFCA, 1997 ) . Despite this, Quality Protects ( DoH, 1998 ) and the authorities s launch of Choice Protects in 2002 ( see everychildmatters.gov.uk ) continually try to raise the quality of furthering proviso to better arrangement pick and stableness. The green paper Every Child Matters ( DfES, 2003 ) and more late Care Matters ( DfES, 2007 ) argue that Foster attention services need carers with the accomplishments to look after vulnerable kids. In some states, such as Australia, the choice of Foster carers still has no empirical base beyond condemnable record cheques and suited adjustment ( Kennedy and Thorpe, 2006 ) . This was the past image in the UK, nevertheless the National Foster Care Association ( NFCA ) , now called The Fostering Network ( TFN ) introduced the Codes of Practice ( NFCA, 1999a ) and National Minimum Standards ( NFCA, 1999b ) for measuring surrogate carers. My appraisal of Monica would see her accomplishments, experience, values, cognition and overall suitableness to further kids for the local authorization. This was based on measuring her on four competences ( caring for kids ; supplying a safe and caring environment ; working as portion of a squad and ain development ) broken into 18 units ( Appendix A ) . More late the Children s Workforce Development Council ( CWDC ) has developed 7 criterions for surrogate carers ( 2007 ) ( Appendix B ) . The squad had merely begun utilizing these alongside the competences ( NFCA, 1999a, 1999b ) when I started Monica s appraisal. The criterions support a three phase preparation model for Foster attention ( pre-approval ; initiation and surrogate carer development ) . Pre-approval was my nonsubjective with Monica linked to subdivision 27 ( 1 ) of the FCR ( 2002 ) ( Appendix C ) , and other relevant statute law ( Appendix D ) . Although the FCR ( 2002 ) are the legislative force, it was the NMS ( DoH, 2002 ) under subdivision 17 which gave me a more elaborate apprehension of the countries ( caring ability, sexual boundaries, faith etc ) necessitating measuring with Monica ( Appendix E ) . Brown ( 1992 ) observes that a fosterage appraisal has two interrelated facets: ( a ) Evaluation of prospective carer s strengths and failings and ( B ) the appraisal of their capacity to larn, adapt and alteration. These aims are still relevant to measuring surrogate carers today. Whilst I was measuring Monica on the competences and CWDC criterions, there is no standardized manner of obtaining the grounds for these. I therefore felt I had a batch of discretion in my appraisal. I decided multiple cognition beginnings ( research, intuition and experience etc ) would steer my appraisal. Webb ( 2001 ) argues that Evidence Based Practice ( EBP ) can non work in societal work as the farewell of facts and values inherent in EBP undermines professional opinion and discretion. I disagreed and felt the usage of both grounds and my ain intuition was needed to obtain an accurate appraisal of Monica. For illustration, research states a demand for carers committed to developing after blessing ( H utchinson et al. , 2003 ) . However, I knew that merely because a carer agreed to developing after blessing that my intuition or pattern wisdom ( Stepney, 2000 ) may state me otherwise. Further, Sinclair s ( 2005 ) research underscoring the demand for betterments in surrogate carer choice, I felt, justified my usage of multiple cognition beginnings to make my aims with Monica. Planing for the Work When foremost allocated the appraisal of Monica, I was in the first hebdomad of my arrangement and true had small apprehension of what really made a good Foster carer beyond my ain common sense. This deficiency of cognition and apprehension left me experiencing out of my deepness and dying. I hence decided that before doing any contact with Monica I would garner all available information and utilize my bing cognition base to see how it fitted with the fostering appraisal. Brown ( 1992 ) suggests that when nearing a fostering appraisal we should inquire ourselves a scope of inquiries. The three I found myself inquiring were: what knowledge do I need ; is the assessment discriminatory or oppressive and what accomplishments and values do I need. Knowledge Gathering Appraisal is at the Centre of all good societal work pattern ( Bartlett, 1970 ; Milner and OByrne, 2002 ) and therefore my planning was important as failing to program is be aftering to neglect ( Trevithick, 2005, pg.140 ) . I wanted to utilize Monica s initial place visit study as my get downing point, as appraisals are seldom, if of all time, value free ( Rees, 1991 ) . Therefore before I understood any more about the fosterage procedure I wanted to place and look into any prejudice I may hold that could impact the appraisal undertaken ( Clifford, 1998 ) . However I was surprised by the studies deficiency of item and hence spoke to the societal worker who completed it. He could nt give me any extra information which frustrated me as the study, in my sentiment, failed to give the intended snapshot of Monica. This did nt assist alleviate my anxiousness, nevertheless reading the counsel Assessing surrogate carers: A societal workers guide to competency appraisals ( NFCA, 2000 ) increased my assurance of what I was expected to accomplish in my appraisal with Monica. Using this counsel coupled with the NMS ( DoH, 2002 ) and colleague information placed the appraisal of Monica in my head as undertaking centred pattern ( Doel, 1994, 2002 ; Reid and Epstein, 1972 ) . This was because the undertakings involved were non merely activities but held significance because of what they represented overall ( Coulshead and Orme, 2006 ) ; the fosterage of vulnerable kids. As fostering appraisals vary in length, typically between 4 months and a twelvemonth, I saw the appraisal as a uninterrupted procedure ( Hepworth et al. , 1997 ) . Therefore although my assessment visits would be based around specific undertakings and information assemblage, my appraisal of Monica would follow the ASPIRE theoretical acc ount ( Sutton, 1999 ) . This was because during my appraisal I would continually be after, step in, reappraisal and measure the appraisal with Monica. Oppression and Control From all available information beginnings, one issue rose within me. This was how intrusive the fostering appraisal appeared, and how for me, it epitomised the attention vs. control duality. Triseliotis et al. , ( 1995 ) believe that nowhere else are such inquiries asked with greater doggedness than in the appraisal of prospective Foster carers. They acknowledge that ways are being sought to do the procedure less intrusive and fairer to appliers. Although I saw the competences and criterions as one manner of accomplishing this with Monica, I still felt that I had a batch of power in her appraisal. Davis et al. , ( 1984 ) believe that the unequal power relationship between societal workers and appliers may advance the development of a relationship of dependance instead than the type of unfastened partnership required in furthering today. I viewed this unfastened partnership as being based on Monica s ego finding which to be met began with Monica voluntarily accepting my intercession ( Spicker, 1990 ) . My original thought was that subjugation merely applied to vulnerable groups. However, I knew I should avoid complacence as subjugation could go on to anybody, including Monica. In fact Monica had begun a Skills to Foster readying group and I had asked the facilitator of the group for some feedback. She described Monica as an interesting one noticing that she looked like she was approximately to drop dead. I discovered this judgement was based strictly on her usage of a walking assistance. Understating the impact of labelling ( Becker, 1963 ; Lemert, 1972 ) , I did nt desire this judgement to impact on me as I wanted to travel into Monica s appraisal with an anti-oppressive, non judgmental and accepting attitude ( Biestek, 1961 ) . Reflecting on my accomplishments and values Cardinal to our cognition base is the demand to cognize ourselves ( Dominelli, 2002 ; Crisp et al. , 2003 ) . Effective appraisal depends on the deployment of cardinal accomplishments such as Engagement ( Egan, 2002 ) , communicating, dialogue, determination devising ( Watson and West, 2006 ) and administrative accomplishments ( Coulshead and Orme, 2006 ) . I felt I already possessed the accomplishments needed and found it was my values in relation to this appraisal that were more hard to nail. As already stated, I did nt desire to label Monica but I did see her as an expert by experience instead than a service user , which is descriptive non of her as a individual but of our relationship ( McLaughlin, 2009 ) . Although engagement in societal work is determined by context ( Kirby et al. , 2003 ; Warren, 2007 ) I saw our relationship as mutual. I found the exchange theoretical account ( Smale et al. , 2000 ; Fook, 2002 ) of appraisal was peculiarly relevant in measuring Monica s ability to further kids, as she would evidently be more of an expert on her abilities. This really made me experience rather dying and powerless. This was, on contemplation, because as a adult male with no kids, I questioned my ability to measure an experient ex-childminding female parent. I took this to supervising and through treatment I understood that my virtuousness moralss ( McBeath and Webb, 2002 ) based on judgement, experience, apprehension, contemplation and temperament ; coupled with rem aining client centred and esteeming Monica as an person ( Dominelli, 2002 ; Middleton, 1997 ) would steer my appraisal. I saw myself as a hermeneutic worker moving in a brooding interpretive procedure between myself and Monica ( Gadamer, 1981 ) . Direct Work I had telephoned Monica and arranged to run into at her place. As the bulk of my visits would be two manner conversations between me and Monica I saw them as interviews with a specific and predetermined intent ( Barker, 2003, p. 227 ) . Eyess of a kid When set abouting Monica s appraisal, I tried to see everything non merely from the eyes of a professional but besides that of a kid. I understood that kids in the attention system would hold diverse demands and backgrounds ( Schofield et al. , 2000 ) with perchance a complex history of moves ( Ward et al. , 2006 ) . However I besides knew that attention can be a turning point and chance to raise kids, enabling them to carry through their possible ( Rutter, 1999 ; Schofield, 2001 ; Schofield and Beek, 2005 ) . Young people have commented that it is a surrogate carer s personality that makes the difference ( DfES, 2007b ) . Therefore by believing like a kid, I wanted to experience confident that by urging Monica to the fostering panel I could see she would be of great comfort and benefit to vulnerable immature people. Upon reaching at Monica s I was greeted by two aggressive Canis familiariss leaping and barking at the door. A tall compact adult male, who I later learnt was her boy, appeared from the garage and asked what I wanted. When inquiring for Monica he replied who wants to cognize . This ill will was shortly eased when I explained who I was, upon which he opened the door, called for Monica, and left me with both Canis familiariss leaping up at me. I felt that a kid come ining Monica s place was likely to be sing a scope of emotions, including anxiousness and from the eyes of a kid this would be chilling. Despite non the best of starts, I was determined non to do a judgement at a superficial degree ( Lloyd and Taylor, 1995 ) and to maintain an unfastened head about Monica s appraisal. Constructing a resonance Aware of the attention and control duality I wanted Monica to experience relaxed with me. I hence invested clip in acquiring to cognize approximately her as a individual before explicating the appraisal procedure. Although echt resonance can be questionable ( Feltham and Dryden, 1993 ) I felt my involvement in Monica was non-tokenistic, as I admired and respected her for desiring the ambitious function of furthering ( Kant, 1964 ) . I believe this was transmitted to her an enabled her to swear me. Monica talked about her household including the separation from her hubby. She besides spoke about caring for her ill female parent that caused her serious back jobs. Monica explained that she had a trim room and could nt believe of any better usage so for kids in demand of a loving place. Interestingly she went on to add well they might non desire to come here, I m a huffy lady and they might inquire: how would I suit into her universe . I found this look strange but following a gut feeling decided non to research at this point. I did this foremost because I did nt desire to look autocratic but secondly I felt my appraisal would subsequently supply beginnings of information that my intuition would be tested against ( Munro, 1996 ) . I explained the fostering appraisal procedure to Monica including the competences ( NFCA, 1999a ) and criterions ( CWDC, 2007 ) . I used a mixture of interpretive, descriptive and ground giving accounts ( Brown and Atkins, 1997 ) to guarantee Monica was clear of our hereafter work together. I commented you might be believing how a immature adult male without kids of his ain can can measure me in looking after kids . This elicited laugher from both Monica and me. As Kadushin and Kadushin ( 1997 ) explain laughter is an equaliser. It deflates ostentation. Workers capacity to express joy at themselves without embarrassment or shame communicates genuineness in the relationship ( pg. 225 ) . I besides believe it served a societal intent ( Foot, 1997 ) to switch power to Monica and do my following statement easier to present. I explained that in the fosterage appraisal it was expected that prospective campaigners were as unfastened and honest about their past experiences. I explained ab out confidentiality and that whilst non everything would be included in the fostering panel study, I could nt vouch absolute confidentiality ( Evans and Harris, 2004 ; Millstein, 2000 ; Swain, 2006 ) . I explained I would ever inform her if I needed to unwrap information and that personal information with no relevancy to her fostering ability would stay confidential. I believe this account built the needed trust ( Collingridge et al. , 2001 ) necessity for our relationship to advancement ( Leever et al. , 2002 ) . General Task Due to being my first visit, no specific undertakings had been set to discourse. Therefore reflexively I thought about the group facilitators earlier remarks about Monica dropping dead as I had noticed her walking assistance. I wanted to reflexivity dispute how I made sense of Monica s fittingness ( White, 2001 ) by making more cognition about this ( DCruz et al. , 2007 ) and maintaining the power balanced towards her. We hence completed a needed medical questionnaire. Monica stated, this is the spot I was worried about . Homing in on this anxiousness and apprehension that she may experience criticised ( Lishman, 1994 ) , I used reassurance to expose regard ( Clark, 2000 ) . I explained that I was non seeking to categorize her as either eligible or ineligible ( Fook, 2002 ) but a medical was expected of all carers. Monica explained that she was diabetic and was commanding this without her medicine and GP s cognition. I explored this with Monica and the possible impact for a vulnera ble kid, saying I would necessitate to discourse with my supervisor. Whilst traveling through the medical questionnaire Monica did nt advert her mobility job and therefore I probed about this. This achieved its coveted consequence ( Egan, 2002 ) as I learnt that Monica was registered handicapped and had nt been able to work for two old ages. Monica exclaimed that s it now is nt it . I truly valued Monica and thanked her for being honest with me. I stated that I was really more concerned about the diabetes so her disablement. My ain values were that every bit long as a kid was safe, so any individual regardless of disablement should be able to further. I set Monica the undertaking of building her chronology to discourse in our following visit and left her place. Supervision Supervision is non merely to help practician s development ( Hawkins and Shohet, 2000 ) but besides the demands of service users ( Pritchard, 1995 ) . I raised my concerns environing Monica s diabetes. I besides raised concerns environing the general province of Monica s place which was highly run down, covered in Canis familiaris hairs and had peculiarly hapless air quality. Using the hierarchy of attentivenesss ( Maslow, 1954 ) I saw how of import the house would be in run intoing the kid s basic demands and therefore its possible impact on a kid making self realization. Hazard has assumed increasing importance in societal workers day-to-day activities ( Webb, 2006 ) and I found my supervisor and senior practician urging we close the appraisal based on hazard. However I viewed the state of affairs from a preventive hazard position ( Corby, 1996 ) and felt that with work and support Monica could still further. I put my instance to the squad director from a Disability Discrimination Act ( 1995 ) and Equality Act ( 2006 ) position, saying that there is a dominant political orientation of disablement where services tended to concentrate on incapacity ( Prime Minister s Strategy Unit, 2005 ; Thompson, 2001 ) . However I saw possible in Monica due to raising her boy independently and her childminding experience. I was granted to go on with my appraisal if Monica could turn to her wellness and family issues. Dalrymple and Burke ( 2006 ) believe that critical argument about personal, professional and organisational values is indispensable in covering with ethical quandary. Although co-workers will hold different point of views ( Watson, 2006 ) , I felt my co-workers were moving habitually seeing Monica s appraisal as impracticable. However I saw my function as besides moral worker ( Hyden, 1996 ) and felt, with the attention vs. control and anti-oppressive pattern in my head, that Monica deserve d the chance to do the necessary sensible accommodations. Discussion around issues On the 2nd visit I discussed the issues environing Monica s diabetes and she agreed to see the GP and get down to command this once more. Her recognition that she was just being obstinate and thought she knew best I believe showed that my actions were with her best involvements in head. I besides raised the topic of the cleanliness of her place. Monica did nt experience at that place was an issue as she and her boy had lived at that place with no concerns. At first I questioned my values and whether I was enforcing them upon her. I reflexively began believing about the Human Rights Act ( 1998 ) Article 8 Right to Respect for Family and Private Life . However I besides thought about how I felt when I had left after the first visit and once more took my point of view from a kid who would potentially be less healthy than me. Under Article 27 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child ( 1990 ) children have the right to a criterion of populating adequate to their physical, mental, religious, moral and societal development . I explained to Monica that I was non seeking to enforce my values and believes upon how she lived and utilizing motivational interviewing ( Miller and Rollnick, 2002 ) asked her to compare her house with her friends places. I had used this method in my first arrangement and believed its usage in placing disagreements was movable. My usage of this method obtained its acquired affect as Monica stated that she knew her house could be a batch cleaner but because of her disablement she could nt keep it. Researching this with job resolution ( Howe, 2007 ) identified the demand of her boy to assist keep the place, but Monica stated she did nt desire to trouble him. I was holding trouble understanding how Monica s boy fitted with her fosterage. From a systems theory position ( Goldstein, 1973 ; Specht and Vickery, 1977 ) I saw this as of import to Monica s appraisal as he was her chief support and therefore his behavior would impact upon both her and kids placed with her. When believing abou t the appraisal of surrogate carers we should be turn toing whether or non the household system is closed or open ( Shaw, 1989 ) . An unfastened household system is one that is accepting of alteration and more likely to offer successful arrangements. Monica explained her boy was apathetic but supportive of her fosterage. I explained that I would necessitate to interview him individually to turn to this issue at a ulterior point in the appraisal. Chronology I had asked Monica to finish her chronology which provides a history of important events in her life ( Parker and Bradely, 2007 ) . This was to measure one of the competences looking at how our ain experiences can impact us ( NFCA, 1999a ) . Monica discussed her life events but nil from her childhood. I asked her about her childhood and she said it was nt of import. I used disputing to help farther ego contemplation and apprehension ( Millar et al. , 1992 ) . Monica asked me about my remarks in our first meeting about being unfastened and honest and whether I needed to cognize everything. I stated I merely needed to cognize things that would impact on her ability to further. Monica began shouting and started to explicate to me that she had been sexually abused in childhood by her uncle. The information elicited took me by complete surprise and made me dying. I sat and listened to understand, sympathize and measure what Monica had disclosed ( Smith, 1997 ) . Reding techniques can be used across many societal work state of affairss ( Seden, 2005 ) and I felt I demonstrated the core/basic guidance accomplishments ( Rogers, 1951 ; 1961 ) required of societal workers ( Thompson, 2002 ) . However with something so entrenched and deep I felt I was nt in the place to research this. Monica stated she wanted to go on and I hence asked Monica her it s impact on her current life. She stated she still had the occasional black twenty-four hours where she could nt acquire out of bed. Care Matters ( DfES, 2007 ) states that we need carers who can stand in the kid s places ( p.46 ) to assist them modulate their feelings. Monica positively identified that she could symp athize with a sexually abused kid but so worryingly said that by speaking to a kid about their issues would assist barricade out her ain cheerless feelings. Anxiety can enrich the individuality of societal work pattern ( Miehls and Moffatt, 2000 ) . On speedy contemplation this anxiousness I felt enhanced the apprehension between me and Monica ( Ruch, 2002 ) and empowered her to state me that she still had her ain issues to turn to. Monica acknowledged that she had nt thought about the maltreatment for 40 old ages believing her disablement caused her depression. I talked with Monica whilst waiting for her friend to get to guarantee she was safe before I left and stated I would shortly be in touch. Endings After the visit I compiled my notes utilizing a funnel attack to polish my information ( Parker and Penhale, 1998 ) into a study for senior staff. I used theory to offer answerability to all involved, including Monica, in my determination to shut her appraisal ( Payne, 2005 ) . This was based on standard 6.1 of the NMS ( DoH, 2002 ) in doing available carers who provide a safe, healthy and nurturing environment ( p.11 ) . My co-workers supported my determination and said to direct Monica a shutting missive which I found insensitive and unacceptable. I wanted a more moral face to confront closing with Monica instead than a procedural closing ( Lloyd, 2006 ) as Monica had disclosed something highly personal to me and I respected her for this. Endings are planned from the beginning ( Kadushin and Kadushin, 1997 ) . The natural stoping would hold been showing Monica s appraisal to the fostering panel. Alternatively our stoping was on different footings in which I provided Monica with a scope of local bureaus that could offer aid or reding to turn to her ain issues. Brooding Evaluation As stated at the beginning of this study, I decided to take this unsuccessful appraisal to analyze instead than my ulterior successful appraisal. This may look strange to the reader as the latter carers are now approved and furthering. However although I could compose in equal length about the more successful appraisal, it was Monica s that taught me more about societal work and about myself. I felt Monica s appraisal demonstrated the acquisition and deployment of my cognition, accomplishments and values over the past two old ages. The wide scope of literature presented in this study pulls on old and new resources, showing the demand to systematically update my cognition in an of all time altering profession. Without this cognition I would neer hold been able to work with Monica. I believe my appraisal, communicating and interpersonal accomplishments demonstrated my competency ( OHagan, 1996 ) . This ensured a natural, about unconscious, usage of the ASPIRE theoretical account ( Sutton, 1999 ) throughout and intend I could accommodate to the state of affairs and react eclectically to Monica s state of affairs due to its complexness ( Cheetham et al. , 1992 ) . Integrity ( BASW, 2002 ) has been the most important value throughout my preparation. I believe it incorporates all values such as Biestek s ( 1961 ) rules. My unity ensured that I fought for the continuance of Moni ca s appraisal at one point ; working anti-oppressively, non-discriminately and contending against societal unfairnesss ( BASW, 2002 ) . However despite my strengths, I appreciate that ego cognition is cardinal to going a brooding practician ( Dominelli, 2002 ) ; necessitating an openness and ability to be self critical ( Trevithick, 2005 ) . With Monica s appraisal I was reminded of how pattern is nt straightforward and can invariably alter ( Parker and Bradley, 2007 ) . I went into this appraisal experiencing that everything would be distinct because Monica had been seen by another societal worker and therefore she must hold been a certainty for furthering. However my complacence and trust on other workers opinions did nt fix me for the information I was subsequently to have. Uncertainty is an inevitable portion of human interaction and determination devising ( Roy at al. , 2002 ) and is something I need to appreciate more and continually turn to within myself. I feel another country that I could hold improved upon was concentrating more on Monica s strengths as she demonstrated an interior resource in reacting to t he day-to-day challenges in her life ( Kisthardt, 1992 ) . I feel that although my determination would non hold changed, in future pattern I need to maintain a steadfast clasp on service user strengths to appreciate that there is room in appraisal to concentrate on the cognitive accomplishments, get bying mechanisms, interpersonal accomplishments and societal supports that can be built on as strengths ( Pierson ( 2002 ) . Although the appraisal had nt gone every bit planned for Monica, I still believe it had some positive impact upon her. Monica s childhood had been traumatic and I viewed this afterwards utilizing the Johari window ( Luft and Ingram, 1955 ) in figure 2 below. At first I had wondered whether Monica s maltreatment was merely an facet of her concealed ego. However what struck me afterwards was that Monica stated I have nt thought about that in over 40 old ages . I had nt attached any significance upon this statement, likely due to the emotiveness of the state of affairs. However upon contemplation I feel that Monica s childhood maltreatment was portion of her unconscious ego that had been repressed as a defense mechanism mechanism ( Freud, 1949 ) . Known Self Things we know about Ourselves and others know about us Hidden Self Things we know about ourselves that others do non cognize Blind Self Thingss others know about us that we do non cognize Unconscious Self Thingss neither we nor others know about us Figure 2: Johari Window ( Adapted from Luft and Ingham, 1955 ) Initially I felt that it may hold been incorrect for me to hold elicited such a strong emotion from Monica. However about 2 months subsequently I received a missive from her thanking me for my support. She was having guidance and although she acknowledged she had a long manner to travel commented that she had seen an betterment in her mobility. I am glad I neer pushed at what Monica meant when she commented I m a huffy lady as I believe my non-judgmental attitude and credence ( Biestek, 1961 ) ensured Monica discovered for herself what she meant by this statement. My determination to shut Monica s appraisal highlighted to me, as was my concern in my planning, that subjugation and power are built-in facets of the day-to-day lives of professionals ( Hugman, 1991 ) . In Monica s instance, although I believe I was non-oppressive working with her, I still felt I processed a certain sum of power. OSullivan states that effective determinations achieve the determination shaper s end ( 2000, p.85 ) . My end was to measure Monica s overall suitableness to further kids for the local authorization. I highlighted to the reader earlier that I held two statements in my head to utilize throughout Monica s appraisal. Although non the make up ones minding factor in my determination, they helped me to see that although I valued Monica and the strengths she possessed, her ain issues needed turn toing before going the cardinal figure to many vulnerable kids. One article I have ever found influential is Howe s Modernity, Postmodernity and Social Work ( 1994 ) . Howe sees societal work as dwelling of the beautiful ( aesthetics ) the good ( moralss ) and the true ( scientific discipline ) ( p.518 ) . The beautiful is when we care which I believe my actions for Monica demonstrated. The true is where change requires us to convey a matter-of-fact and scientific mentality on issues. I believe I used accumulated factual, pattern and self knowledge to assist Monica s state of affairs. Finally the good is when control is employed if behavior has a possible impact upon the community s overall good being. Control was, and still is, something I am uncomfortable with and believe this will ever be the instance. However I see in my pattern with Monica that some component of it was required, otherwise my pattern would hold convened against the rights of so many vulnerable kids. Like many others, the ground I chose societal work was for the chance to do a difference ( Audit Commission, 2002 ) . Milner and OByrne ( 2002 ) believe there is no individual right manner to analyze human state of affairss but we need to happen the terminal merchandise of a narrative that is helpful to all concerned. With Monica s appraisal I believe I achieved this by doing the difference non merely to her but besides to kids who I will neer even meet. It is with this satisfaction that I believe my work incorporates the moralss ( BASW, 2002 ) and pattern criterions ( GSCC, 2002 ) required of me post making. 5708- 296= 5412
Thursday, November 21, 2019
City Budget - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that in making a budget a number of considerations are factored into the decision-making process which is a prerequisite in budgeting. A budget which is a financial plan aids in ensuring that funds are not misappropriated and only identified stuff is dealt with as per the plan. It shows estimate expenditures and income or revenue sources to finance the expenses. This may be in form of the different types of loans and grants, taxes, bills and the expenses include payments of human resources, initiation of new development plans, repayment of previously taken loans amongst others. Ã According to the Scott, a budget preparation requires a study and evaluation of previously made budgets to understand the trend and the constants that are independent of time. Generally, the average of the first seven years is considered because it gives a true representation of the previous budgets. It is important to note that there are years of economic depres sion and inflation in a budget. It should be prepared on time and the prior yearÃ¢â¬â¢s actual financial activity should form the basis of your start. The revenue sources are analyzed and conservative amounts are given, no overestimates are included in a budget forecast. A combination of recurrent and fixed/investment of yearÃ¢â¬â¢s expenditure is added to find the general expenditure of the current year and a liberal approach is applied to indicate expenditure; in expenses, it is better to overestimate than to underestimate.