Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Diary s A diary is a personal record of events, experiences, thoughts, and observations. We converse with the absent by letters, and with ourselves by diaries, says Isaac DIsraeli in Curiosities of Literature (1793). These books of account, he says preserve what wear out in the memory, and . . . render to a man an account of himself to himself. In this sense, diary-writing may be regarded as a type of conversation or monologue as well as a form of autobiography. Although the reader of a diary is usually only the author herself, on occasion diaries are published (in most cases after an authors death). Well-known diarists include Samuel Pepys (1633-1703), Dorothy Wordsworth (1771-1855), Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Anne Frank (1929-1945), and AnaÃ ¯s Nin (1903-1977). In recent years, growing numbers of people have begun keeping online diaries, usually in the form of blogs or web journals. Diaries are sometimes used in conducting research, particularly in the social sciences and in medicine. Research diaries (also called field notes) serve as records of the research process itself. Respondent diaries may be kept by the individual subjects participating in a research project. Etymology:Ã From the Latin, daily allowance, daily journal Excerpts From Famous Diaries Excerpt From Virginia Woolfs DiaryEaster Sunday, April 20th, 1919. . . The habit of writing for my eye only is good practice. It loosens the ligaments. . . What sort of diary should I like mine to be? Something loose knit and yet not slovenly, so elastic that it will embrace anything, solemn, slight or beautiful that comes into my mind. I should like it to resemble some deep old desk, or capacious hold-all, in which one flings a mass of odds and ends without looking them through. I should like to come back, after a year or two, and find that the collection had sorted itself and refined itself and coalesced, as such deposits mysteriously do, into a mould, transparent enough to reflect the light of our life, and yet steady, tranquil compounds with the aloofness of a work of art.(Virginia Woolf, A Writers Diary. Harcourt, 1953)I get courage by reading [Virginia Woolfs Diary]. I feel very akin to her.(Sylvia Plath, quoted by Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar in No Mans Land. Yale Univers ity Press, 1994) Excerpt From Sylvia Plaths DiaryJuly 1950. I may never be happy, but tonight I am content. Nothing more than an empty house, the warm hazy weariness from a day spent setting strawberry runners in the sun, a glass of cool sweet milk, and a shallow dish of blueberries bathed in cream. When one is so tired at the end of a day one must sleep, and at the next dawn there are more strawberry runners to set, and so one goes on living, near the earth. At times like this Id call myself a fool to ask for more . . ..(Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath, ed. Karen V. Kukil. Anchor Books, 2000)Excerpts From Anne Franks DiaryNow Im back to the point that prompted me to keep a diary in the first place: I dont have a friend.Ã¢â¬Å"Who else but me is ever going to read these letters?Ã¢â¬ (Anne Frank, The Diary of a Young Girl, ed. by Otto H. Frank and Mirjam Pressler. Doubleday, 1995) Thoughts and Observations on Diaries Safires Rules for Keeping a DiaryFor people intimidated by their own diaries, here are a handful of rules:Four rules are enough rules. Above all, write about what got to you that day . . ..(William Safire, On Keeping a Diary. The New York Times, September. 9, 1974)You own the diary, the diary doesnt own you. There are many days in all our lives about which the less written the better. If you are the sort of person who can only keep a diary on a regular schedule, filling up two pages just before you go to bed, become another sort of person.Write for yourself. The central idea of a diary is that you are not writing for critics or for posterity but are writing a private letter to your future self. If you are petty, or wrongheaded, or hopelessly emotional, relaxÃ¢â¬âif there is anybody who will understand and forgive, it is your future self.Put down what cannot be reconstructed. . . . [R]emind yourself of the poignant personal moment, the remark you wish you had made, your predictions about the outcome of your own tribulations.Write legibly. . . . Vita Sackville-West on Capturing Moments[T]he fingers which have once grown accustomed to a pen soon itch to hold one again: it is necessary to write, if the days are not to slip emptily by. How else, indeed, to clap the net over the butterfly of the moment? For the moment passes, it is forgotten; the mood is gone; life itself is gone. That is where the writer scores over his fellows: he catches the changes of his mind on on the hop.(Vita Sackville-West, Twelve Days, 1928)David Sedariss DiariesAt the start of my second year [of college]. I signed up for a creative-writing class. The instructor, a woman named Lynn, demanded that we each keep a journal and that we surrender it twice during the course of the semester. This meant that Id be writing two diaries, one for myself and a second, heavily edited one, for her.The entries I ultimately handed in are the sorts I read onstage sometimes, the .01 percent that might possibly qualify as entertaining: a joke I heard, a T-shirt slogan, a b it of inside information passed on by a waitress or cabdriver.(David Sedaris, Lets Explore Diabetes With Owls. Hachette, 2013) Research DiariesA research diary should be a log or record of everything that you do in your research project, for example, recording ideas about possible research topics, database searches you undertake, your contacts with research study sites, access and and approval processes and difficulties you encounter and overcome, etc. The research diary is the place where you should also record your thoughts, personal reflections and insights into the research process.(Nicholas Walliman and Jane Appleton, Your Undergraduate Dissertation in Health and Social Care. Sage, 2009)Christopher Morley on DiaristsThey catalogue their minutes: Now, now, now,Is Actual, amid the fugitive;Take ink and pen (they say) for that is howWe snare this flying life, and make it live.So to their little pictures, and they sieveTheir happinesses: fields turned by the plough,The afterglow that summer sunsets give,The razor concave of a great ships bow.O gallant instinct, folly for mens mirth!Type cannot burn and spar kle on the page.No glittering ink can make this written wordShine clear enough to speak the noble rageAnd instancy of life. All sonnets blurredThe sudden mood of truth that gave them birth.(Christopher Morley, Diarists. Chimneysmoke, George H. Doran, 1921) Ã¢â¬Å"I never travel without myÃ diary. One should always have something sensational to readÃ inÃ the train.Ã¢â¬ (Oscar Wilde,Ã The Importance of Being Earnest, 1895)It seems to me that the problem withÃ diaries, and the reason that most of them are so boring, is that every day we vacillate between examining our hangnails and speculating on cosmic order.(Ann Beattie,Ã Picturing Will, 1989)
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Supply Chain Management College - Case Study Example This creates a bottle neck, which is translated in its inability to supply the eight-pack in the market. This creates a substantial loss in consumer sales which could have uplifted the numbers for the sales and marketing department. The inability to run in full capacity leaves some of its products unmanufactured. This can be seen as an opportunity cost for the company. Supply chain is indeed "one of the major areas for companies to gain a competitive edge" and operations is the first step (Lee, 2002). Efficient operations management allows the company to cut on costs through efficient labor and capital use and presents desirable products to the marketing people. The Seven Principles of Supply Chain Management suggests that to "develop a supply chain-wide technology strategy that supports multiple levels of decision making and gives a clear view of the flow of products, services, and information" (David L. Anderson, 1997). The system prepares the company in the short-term, the midterm and the long-term operations. For the daily transaction, this technology will be used to align the "supply" to the "demand" through "sharing of information on orders and daily scheduling" (David L. Anderson, 1997).
Friday, February 7, 2020
Ethical Research Practice - Essay Example There is considerable concern about consent issues in relation to groups perceived as 'vulnerable', i.e., where individuals have difficulties in giving initial and continued informed consent because of issues of 'competence'. Groups who are perceived as vulnerable include children and young people, people with mental health problems and people with learning disability. Ethics Committees generally ask that special consideration is given to the ways in which 'vulnerable groups' are accessed and give consent to participate in research to ensure that they understand what participation involves and are not coerced into taking part. The expectation is generally that the researcher should justify the importance of the research and the need to include 'vulnerable' populations and should identify the means whereby informed consent will be obtained - in many cases there will be an expectation that proxy consent (from a parent or relative) may be used to supplement the consent or assent from th e individual who is not seen as competent to give consent in their own right (Baez 2002). It has been argued that researchers should seek consent each time they collect data from a study participant to ensure that they are aware that data are being collected and that they are willing to continue participating in the study.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Grammar school Essay As I entered the trading post in a small border reservation community I passed two Navajo youth leaning against the wall, one leg propped behind them for support. They wore black tee-shirts, one declaring Ã¢â¬Å"Indian Pride on the Rise,Ã¢â¬ the other showing a heavy metal rock group Ã¢â¬Å"Twisted Sister. Ã¢â¬ Both wore high topped basketball shoes and hair free flowing to their shoulders. One spoke to me. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, are you the lady who is talking to dropouts? You should talk to me. Im a professional dropout. Ã¢â¬ I did. And to many others. Their stories spoke of racial discrimination and rejection by teachers. Ã¢â¬Å"The way I see it seems like the whitesÃ dont want to get involved with the Indians. They think were bad. We drink. Our families drink. Dirty. Ugly. And the teachers dont want to help us. They say, Oh, no, there is Another Indian asking a question because they dont understand. So we stopped asking questions. Ã¢â¬ Their stories spoke of the importance and power of families and the Navajo culture. Ã¢â¬Å"I go crazy worrying about my parents. They need me so us Navajo stick together. I feel kinda proud to be a Navajo. Ã¢â¬ And their stories spoke of academic and social marginalization in their classes and schools. Ã¢â¬Å"It was just like they wanted to put us aside, us Indians. They didnt tell us nothing about careers or things to do after high school. They didnt encourage us to go to college. They just took care of the White students. They just wanted to get rid of the Indians. Ã¢â¬ This article is about these Navajo and Ute youth who leave high school. In mainstream research the phenomenon of Ã¢â¬Å"dropping outÃ¢â¬ is commonly defined as an issue of individual failure (see Note 2). Youth Ã¢â¬Å"fail,Ã¢â¬ either academically or socially, to make it through school. The problem exists not because of deficiencies in the schools but rather because of deficiencies in individuals and families. Youth who leave school are described as deviant, dysfunctional, or deficient because of individual, family, or community characteristics. Solutions reside on remediating or changing youth and families to better Ã¢â¬Å"fit in. Ã¢â¬ After all, most youth do succeed in school, suggesting evidence of the school as an effective institution. This body of research ignores the barriers institutions themselves create for youth. Another line of research on dropouts has turned a critical eye towards the role the school and structural barriers play in creating the problem (see Note 3). The research reportedÃ in this article follows this line of inquiry. A critical examination of the Ã¢â¬Å"placeÃ¢â¬ of Navajo and Ute youth in their school and community reveals other reasons than just individual failure for Ã¢â¬Å"dropping out. Ã¢â¬ Structural factors restricting opportunities, in effect, Ã¢â¬Å"failÃ¢â¬ youth. The decision to leave school can then be seen, in part, as a rational response to irrelevant schooling, racism, restricted political, social and economic opportunities, and the desire to maintain a culturally distinct identity. There are many similarities between Indian and other kinds of dropouts. In mostÃ cases, the reasons for leaving school are alike. For example, nearly all dropouts say school is boring, teachers dont care, and school will not help them with what they want to do in life (LeCompte, 1987). Many come from substance abusing families. There are, however, differences between other dropouts and these Navajo and Ute school leavers that only become clear when examining the cultural context surrounding these youth. Cultural and structural factors that might be easy to overlook if only examining Ã¢â¬Å"student characteristicsÃ¢â¬ are important in understanding why many Navajo and Ute youth leave school. Specific to this cultural framework are 1) racial and economic relations in the community and school, 2) home child-rearing patterns of non-interference and early adulthood and, 3) cultural integrity and resistance. The Data Base: Master Student List, Questionnaires and Ethnography In the fall of 1984 1 started an ethnographic study of a border reservation community. I looked at interactions, understandings, and strategies related to education, schooling, success, and failure both in and out of school, among and between three culturally distinct groups of adolescentsÃ¢â¬âAnglo, Navajo, and Ute. Presented here is only one part of this ethnography, focused on school leavers. Throughout this article I use the tribal names, Navajo and Ute, in recognition of the distinctness of these two cultures. I use the term Ã¢â¬Å"IndianÃ¢â¬ in situations which include both Navajo and Ute for simplicity, not for stereotyping. In addition, fictitious names are used for both communities and schools. These results were produced from four data sets: 1) a master data base from school records; 2) ethnographic field notes and collected documents; 3) interviews with aÃ convenience sample of school leavers, and; 4) a questionnaire. In trying to determine an accurate picture of the attrition rates in this district, a data base was established to track all of the Navajo and Ute students by name who had attended Border High School (BHS) and Navajo High School (NHS) from 1980-81 to the 1988-89 school year. This master list contained attendance data, grade point averages, standardized test scores, dropout and graduation rates, community locations, current employment situations, post high school training, and type of diploma received for 1,489 youth. This list has been verified by official district records, local Navajo and Ute community members, school officials, and the youth themselves. The graduation and dropout rate in this community was determined by following Ã¢â¬Å"cohortsÃ¢â¬ of youth throughout their school careers. A total of 629 students forming six different cohorts, from the class of 1984 to the class of 1989, from each of the two high schools are represented with complete four year high school records. Students who took either additional years and/or completed alternative high school degrees are included in the total graduation figures.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Michael Lehman's Heathers and Steve Jodrell's Shame Throughout time the concept of gender and the corruption of power associated with it has been a very evident problem within society. Many texts have been designed to expose these issues and in particular the feature filmsÃ¢â¬â¢ Heathers, directed by Michael Lehman and Shame, by Steve Jodrell. Both these films have been heavily constructed in order to position us as the audience to take a very negative response towards the concepts of power and gender and further an Ã¢â¬Ëanti-conformÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude. Techniques such as narrative elements and codes and conventions have been used to mould these ideas and attitudes within the texts. Both the films Heathers and Shame can be deemed to be modern day Westerns however are quite subverted. They both develop the idea that conformity leads to tragic consequences. Heathers is set in an American high school, Westerburg, in 1988 and attacks the idea of a high school hierarchy, where four girls particularly one, Heather Chandler, has the power within the school. On the arrival of a new student, Jason Dean, Veronica, one of the four girls breaks away and conforms to Jason. As a result she is led to kill Heather Chandler and later the Ã¢â¬Ëfooty jocksÃ¢â¬â¢ to make their school a better place. Shame on the other hand is set in a small outback, Western Australian country town, Ginobrak, in 1987. It deals with the issues of a small town mentality and that Ã¢â¬Ëboys will be boysÃ¢â¬â¢. As result of these concepts and issues, many young girls were raped and the town accepted this. As Asta, an outsider coming into town, stumbles across these rappingsÃ¢â¬â¢, she helps and encourages a young girl, Lizzie to face the boys and lay legal charges. In both texts it takes and outsider the Ã¢â¬ËheroÃ¢â¬â¢ figure to expose the corruption and help in acting as a catalyst to change. Gender relationships are a very explored issue within these texts. In a majority, anyone no matter if they are male or female who do not fit in or do not conform to stereotypes to an extent, can be cast out by that group. Whether it is, their looks, their behaviour, the way they dress, or the way they think and feel, they are judged as different. This Ã¢â¬ËoutcastÃ¢â¬â¢ idea is portrayed in both the films. In the two feature films, the most obvious Ã¢â¬ËoutcastsÃ¢â¬â¢ would be the two Ã¢â¬Ëhero figuresÃ¢â¬â¢ the intruders into the created microcosm. Michael Lehman's Heathers and Steve Jodrell's Shame :: Films Movies Film Movie Michael Lehman's Heathers and Steve Jodrell's Shame Throughout time the concept of gender and the corruption of power associated with it has been a very evident problem within society. Many texts have been designed to expose these issues and in particular the feature filmsÃ¢â¬â¢ Heathers, directed by Michael Lehman and Shame, by Steve Jodrell. Both these films have been heavily constructed in order to position us as the audience to take a very negative response towards the concepts of power and gender and further an Ã¢â¬Ëanti-conformÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude. Techniques such as narrative elements and codes and conventions have been used to mould these ideas and attitudes within the texts. Both the films Heathers and Shame can be deemed to be modern day Westerns however are quite subverted. They both develop the idea that conformity leads to tragic consequences. Heathers is set in an American high school, Westerburg, in 1988 and attacks the idea of a high school hierarchy, where four girls particularly one, Heather Chandler, has the power within the school. On the arrival of a new student, Jason Dean, Veronica, one of the four girls breaks away and conforms to Jason. As a result she is led to kill Heather Chandler and later the Ã¢â¬Ëfooty jocksÃ¢â¬â¢ to make their school a better place. Shame on the other hand is set in a small outback, Western Australian country town, Ginobrak, in 1987. It deals with the issues of a small town mentality and that Ã¢â¬Ëboys will be boysÃ¢â¬â¢. As result of these concepts and issues, many young girls were raped and the town accepted this. As Asta, an outsider coming into town, stumbles across these rappingsÃ¢â¬â¢, she helps and encourages a young girl, Lizzie to face the boys and lay legal charges. In both texts it takes and outsider the Ã¢â¬ËheroÃ¢â¬â¢ figure to expose the corruption and help in acting as a catalyst to change. Gender relationships are a very explored issue within these texts. In a majority, anyone no matter if they are male or female who do not fit in or do not conform to stereotypes to an extent, can be cast out by that group. Whether it is, their looks, their behaviour, the way they dress, or the way they think and feel, they are judged as different. This Ã¢â¬ËoutcastÃ¢â¬â¢ idea is portrayed in both the films. In the two feature films, the most obvious Ã¢â¬ËoutcastsÃ¢â¬â¢ would be the two Ã¢â¬Ëhero figuresÃ¢â¬â¢ the intruders into the created microcosm.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Radiation is a silent death sentence i. e. you cannot see, smell, or taste it. When radiological material ends up in the wrong hands it can become a catastrophic weapon of mass destruction. The public's security against radiological threats is in the hands of federal, state, and local government agencies. These agencies have the responsibility to regulate, mitigate, monitor, and respond to incidents involving sources of radiological materials. An analysis of current radiological threats will provide an improved understanding of potential and creditable radiological threats confronted by the public. Radiological Threat to Public Safety Newswire (2011) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Less than one-third of the population feels they are prepared for a terrorist attack, specifically a radiological attack such as a dirty bomb; yet over eighty percent of Americans feel this type of threat is imminentÃ¢â¬ . Howard & Forest (2008), suggest that a terrorist radiological attack would come by way of a radiological dispersal devise (RDD) or a dirty bomb i. e. a bomb mixed with radiological material and conventional explosives (p. 90). Oppenheimer (2008) states, Ã¢â¬Å"The threat of nuclear terrorism is far more likely from a radiological dispersal device (RDD)Ã¢â¬âa conventional IED laced with a radioisotopeÃ¢â¬âthan via a nuclear fission weaponÃ¢â¬ (para 1). Uranium and plutonium are well known elements used in nuclear devises. Howard et al. (2008) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Only uranium and a few other elements, notably plutonium, can be turned into explosive weapons, but many more elements emit radiationÃ¢â¬ (p. 90). Howard et al. (2008), states, Ã¢â¬Å"Two basic designs of crude nuclear explosives are likely to be adequate for most purposes of terrorist groups intent on nuclear terrorismÃ¢â¬ (p. 14). The first generation, gun-type nuclear explosive device is similar to the bomb that destroyed the city of Hiroshima, Japan. This is the simplest crude devise to design and construct with a powerful nuclear explosion (Howard et al. 2008, p. 114). The United States Department of Health and Human Services (2011) stipulates that the first step in understanding creditable radiation emergencies is to Ã¢â¬Å"draw the distinction between a nuclear event (like the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan) and a radiological event, such as a nuclear power plant incident or a radiological dispersal device (e. . , dirty bomb)Ã¢â¬ . The following is suggested credible nuclear and radiological events. Nuclear Events; * Produces a nuclear detonation involving the joining (fusion) or splitting (fission) of atoms to produce an intense pulse or wave of heat, light, air pressure, and radiation. * Highly destructive explosion that instantly devastates people and buildings because of extreme heat and impact of the blast. * Leaves large amounts of radioactivity and fallout behind. Radiological Events; * May involve explosion and release of radioactivity, but no nuclear fission. Typically, have less radioactivity released than in a nuclear event. In both events, the wind direction along with the weather patterns can spread radioactivity over a wide area (DHHS, 2008). Oppenheimer (2008), stipulated that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"From 1993 to 2004, there were more than 400 confirmed incidents of trafficking materialsÃ¢â¬âarrests and seizures involving radioactive sourcesÃ¢â¬âthat could only be used to produce a RDDÃ¢â¬ (para 5). According to Howard et al. (2008) Ã¢â¬Å"no terrorist group has ever fielded or deployed a nuclear deviseÃ¢â¬ (p. 110). However, Oppenheimer (2008) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Only one RDD incident is known: A dynamite bomb laced with cesium-137, a radioisotope used widely in medicine, was planted by Chechen separatists in a Moscow park in December 1995Ã¢â¬ (para 3). Authorities were able to find the terrorist RDD before it was detonated (Oppenheimer, 2008, para 3). The premise is evident i. e. terrorist organizations have the capability to obtain and deploy a RDD. Howard et al. (2008) suggest, Ã¢â¬Å"A homemade nuclear device, although crude and less efficient than a state military weapon, could very well serve the needs of a terrorist groupÃ¢â¬ (p. 113). Bullock, Haddow, Coppola, & Yeletaysi (2009), describe different types of terrorist events that might include the use of radioactive material. * Introducing radioactive material into the food or water supply. * Using explosives to scatter radioactive materials. * Bombing or destroying a nuclear facility. * Exploding a small nuclear deviceÃ¢â¬ (p. 187). Oppenheimer (2008) described and highlighted the unpredictable radiological poisoning of a former Ã¢â¬Å"KBG agent Alexander Litvinenko by polonium-210 in London in November 2006 Ã¢â¬Å"(para 6). This type of radiation, once inhaled or ingested, will cause an illness that is slow and painful. The contamination spread as the Litvinenko moved about London and beyond (Oppenheimer, 2008, para 6). According to Oppenheimer (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"The U. K. Health Protection Agency had the unenviable task of tracing and testing the urine of hundreds of potential contacts and arranging for them to be treated and counseledÃ¢â¬ (para 6). There were a total of 17 people who were contaminated with radiation at above-average levels (Oppenheimer, 2008, para 6). Oppenheimer (2008) suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"A growing number of smuggling cases since 2002 have involved radioisotopes used in civilian industries and medicineÃ¢â¬ (para 2). Radioactive materials that are no longer considered useful in medicine could be used in building a RDD or a dirty bomb (The American Nuclear Society, 2005). Some agencies feel as though there has Ã¢â¬Å"not been enough of a concerted effort focused on the threat of a radiological attack such as a Ã¢â¬Å"dirty bombÃ¢â¬ (Newswire, 2011). Oppenheimer (2008) describes four attempts at deploying RDD by Chechens i. e. Ã¢â¬Å"deploying an RDD and attacking a nuclear power plant, which are not well documented but are known within the EOD (explosives ordnance disposal) communityÃ¢â¬ (para 1). Hawley (2008) suggests, Ã¢â¬Å"The use of a pharmaceutical grade radioactive material attached to a pipe bomb would release radioactive materialÃ¢â¬ . In addition this small amount of radiation could cause sickness over time. Howard et al. (2008) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Extended exposure to low-level radioactive material increases the likelihood of cellular destructionÃ¢â¬ (, p. 90). The low level of security at many of RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s nuclear power plants and abandoned Russian Northern Fleet submarines has also increased the risk of possible terrorist attacks or takeovers. Ã¢â¬Å"There still are about 120 subs with fueled reactors in need of disposalÃ¢â¬ (Oppenheimer, 2008, papa 2). If a meltdown or explosion at a nuclear facility ever took place a large quantity of radioactive material would be released into the environment. Employees at the nuclear facility would likely be contaminated with radioactive particles to include injuries from the explosion itself. Individuals who received a large dose of radiation might develop acute radiation syndrome. Individuals in the surrounding area could be exposed or contamination and would need medical assists along with decontamination (Bullock, et al. 2009 p. 233). This huge concern and worry of radiological threats, voiced by the public, might not be credible. This is based on research and analyses performed by numerous agencies. According to Bevelacqua & Stilp (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"Bombings involving storage facilities or transportation vehicle pose the greatest threatÃ¢â¬ (p. 60). Mitigating potential bombings of critical facilities and transportation is a challenge for federal, state and local agencies. Bevelacqua et al. (2009) statesÃ¢â¬ A nuclear bomb threat is unlikely to be carries out for a number of reasons, including the extreme expense, its logistical difficulty, and the enormous amount of technology necessary to develop a disperse such a deviseÃ¢â¬ (p. 9). Hawley (2008) states, Ã¢â¬Å"The use of an actual nuclear detonation device is unlikely and very improbable given security these materials haveÃ¢â¬ (p. 233). The amount of nuclear material required for an extensive nuclear result and the particular type of material needed makes use unlikely (Hawley, 2008, p. 233). Bullock, et al. (2009) states Ã¢â¬Å"Although a dirty bomb could cause serious injuries from the explosion, it most likely would not have enough radioactive material in a form that would cause serious radiation sickness among large numbers of people. Oppenheimer (2008) suggests, Ã¢â¬Å"There are numerous obstacles to overcome when weaponizing radioactive materials; the same devices that could be a threat to the public also pose potential threats to terroristsÃ¢â¬ (para 3). Howard et al. 2008, describe the seven myths identified about the threat of nuclear terrorism. 1. Terrorist want a lot of people watching, not a lot of people dead. 2. Nuclear material required to make a bomb are nearly impossible for terrorist to obtain. 3. Difficulties of constructing or stealing a nuclear bomb are unlikely by a terrorist group. 4. The only way a terrorist organization could acquire a nuclear bomb is from a state. 5. The mistaken belief that it is possible to put in place around the United States and other major countries a security cordon that can reduce to a low level the risk that nuclear weapons and material might be smuggled in. 6. The notion that an offensive security posture alone will mitigate the threat of nuclear terrorism. 7. A number of states analysts argue that states would not be especially interested in a stolen nuclear or stolen material to make one, because they want to produce the material for as many nuclear weapons as they need (p. 02). According to Shaw (2001) Ã¢â¬Å"Most studies of preventing terrorist nuclear attacks have reached the same basic conclusionÃ¢â¬ânone of the available basic techniques is sufficiently capable to preclude a successful attack with a high degree of confidenceÃ¢â¬ (p 3). The following are the seven suggested basic techniques: 1. Arms control and related diplomatic measures to control proliferation and access to technology and materials for making nuclear weapons. 2. Physical security and control of existing weapons and materials. 3. Pre-emptive actions. . Deterrent threats of retaliation for attacks. 5. Border controls and related domestic security measures aimed at preventing the movement of weapons or materials into the US. 6. Intelligence collection and law enforcement measures leading to the discovery and apprehension of would-be perpetrators. 7. Effective consequence control and mitigationÃ¢â¬âstill a long way from realityÃ¢â¬âcould be at best a distant second in desirability. Public education on the effects of radiation might allow for understanding the credibility of radiological events. Hawley (2008) states, Ã¢â¬Å"Education on hazards of radiation and the effective use of radiation monitors can ease this fearÃ¢â¬ (p. 234). There are organizations established to educate radiological protection, challenges, and issues. The Newswire (2011) states, Ã¢â¬Å"The Radiological Threat Awareness Coalition (R-TAC) was established to increase awareness and preparedness in this country against a possible radiological attack such as a Ã¢â¬Å"dirty bombÃ¢â¬ (para 1) This synergistic awareness and preparedness was validated successfully by London government agencies responding to prevented a radiological event from becoming catastrophe. Oppenheimer (2008) suggests that the Ã¢â¬Å"London incident response demonstrate that government agencies could rapidly adapt to an unprecedented situationÃ¢â¬ (para 6). This radiological event also showed that nuclear events are all but impossible to predict. Conclusion The mitigation of nuclear weapons issues remain a heighten concern by free nations. The management of the existing stockpiles in the former Soviet Union continues to be a challenge in addition to the activities of the other governments that control nuclear weapons and demonstrate troublesome behavior especially, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran (Banks, Nevers, & Wallerstein, 2008, p. 7). According to Hawley (2008) Ã¢â¬Å"there is currently speculation that there are some small nuclear devises missing from Russia; but this has never been substantiatedÃ¢â¬ (p. 233). However, the fear of missing nuclear devises is a weapon itself. According to Hawley (2008), there is an advantage to a noncredible RDD or a small RDD, and that is the public's reaction. The public's perception, and first responders, is that this event would be a radioactive disaster. However, the reality is that the amount of the radiation would not be dangerous, and as time passed, the danger would lessen as the radioactive material decayed to a lesser hazard. Radiation is one of the big unknowns and cause of fear because it is unknown. This fear makes radiation a key weapon for a terrorist organization. Given this analysis, the question continues to be asked. Is there a credible radiological threat? The answer is yes or maybe no. Either way terrorist organizations have instilled fear of possible radiological events in our nation's future.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
http://www.worldnewsstand.net/2001/article/bank_failures.htm Bank Failures We have written before about the remarkable ability of banks to create money when making loans, and of their equally remarkable ability to multiply these newly created-from-nothing bank deposits via fractional reserve banking. What we have written is true, and easily verified. But banks fail! That fact is equally true, and easily verified as well. How can we reconcile these apparently contradictory facts? If banks can create, and multiply, money, how can they fail? Could your business fail if what you made was, literally, money, or what people took for money? The qualifier is important. It is what people assume about money that makes modern banking possible. TheÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But if his borrowed million dollars is on deposit in that bank, the liability of the bank for a million dollars remains. Most banks can probably absorb a million dollar quot;loss.quot; But if the borrower was a foreign government, and the amount created, or loaned, was a billion dollars, thats another matter. When money is loaned, it is created: instant new money, or inflation. When a loan is repaid, the money goes out of existence. Money creation, or lending, is balanced by money annihilation, or repayment. What difference does it make to the bank, then, if a borrower fails to repay? Either way, the money supply is reduced. The difference is interest, which is the banks profit. Merely adding to the money supply with each loan offers no benefit to the bank. The interest on a billion dollars is substantial, however, so to keep that interest coming, the bank will bail out a foreign government which is unable to service its loan. It may not do this directly, but through a bank consortium, or government front, such as the IMF, or World Bank. Again, appearances are important. The bank cannot be seen lending more money to a borrower who has demonstrated his inability to repay, but a group of banks, perhaps under some governmental aegis, can get away with it. You or I would do the same, probably , if we could. For example: if you could loan your brother a million dollars simply by giving him a piece of paper on which you had written ONE MILLION,Show MoreRelatedCauses of Bank Failure6382 Words Ã |Ã 26 PagesWHY BANK FAILS Introduction Banks are the safest place to keep your cash. Nevertheless, bank failures happen from time to time. Here s a look at what causes bank failures and what you can do about them. The main thing to know in a bank failure is that your money is probably safe. If your money is FDIC insured, you probably donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to panic. Bank OfficersÃ¢â¬â¢ Fraud Let us have an example from USA Former TBW CEO Pleads Guilty in $1.5 Billion Bank Fraud Scheme WASHINGTONÃ¢â¬âPaul Allen, theRead MoreThe Failure Of The World Bank Essay1531 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Failure of the World BankÃ¢â¬â¢s Sardar Sarovar Dam project in India Lira Samanta The World Bank is known to fund many infrastructure projects in developing countries, presumably as a means to achieve their goals of increasing development in those countries. Hydroelectric dams are some of the much-maligned infrastructure projects funded by the World Bank. In a report authored by employees of the World Bank itself, the authors themselves highlight the Ã¢â¬Å"adverse environmental and related social impactsÃ¢â¬ Read MoreFailure of Continental Illinois Bank2333 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesBusiness School Continental Illinois Bank Failure The failure of Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Company (CINB) One of the most famous features on the landscape of the banking crisis in 1980s was the crisis involving the Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Company in May 1984, which still is one of the largest bank failures in U.S. banking history. The collapse of CINB was a significant event in banking history that had a moral for both bank risk managers and regulators. ItRead MoreFailure of Nepal Development Bank Ltd.2150 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesBackground 1. 1. History Nepal Development Bank Limited (NDBL) was established under the Company Act, 2053(1997) in Chaitra 6, 2054 (March 19, 1998). It was the first national level development bank established by the private sector in Nepal. It had commenced its operation since Magh 17, 2055(January 31, 1999) as per Development Bank Act, 2052 (1996). Since Baisakh 21, 2063(May 4, 2006), it had imparted its services in accordance with Bank and Financial Institution Act, 2063. It had enteredRead MoreThe Success And Failure Of World Bank2873 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesÃ¢â¬Æ' Topic 17 : A Critical Analysis on the Success and Failure of World Bank History of World Bank The World Bank is founded in 1944 shortly before the end of World War II by 44 nations that met at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. The World Bank is a multilateral institution, which together with the International Monetary Fund(IMF) and the World Trade Organization(WTO), became a part of the Bretton Woods Agreement. Initially the World Bank was created to assist in the redevelopment of Europe whom wasRead MoreIssue in Corporate Failure of Bank of Credit and Commerce International (Bcci)2198 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCorporate Failure of Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI) Introduction and background: Bank of Credit and Commerce International known as BCCI was founded by Pakistani financer Mr. Agha Hasan Abedi in 1972. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s headquarter was located in London and was incorporated in Luxembourg. BCCI was ranked 7th largest private bank with total assets which amounts to $20.6 billion. By the end of 1988, BCCIÃ¢â¬â¢s network included 417 offices in 73 countries. The annual report noted that the bank now servedRead More Failure of IMF and World Bank Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa4500 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesFailure of IMF and World Bank Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa Over the last several hundred years, Africa has been deprived of the peace that it so desperately needs. For over 400 years, Africa was subjected to the harsh trans-Atlantic slave trade. Europeans and Americans brutally uprooted millions of Africans and shipped them away. Torn away from their homes, Africans were inhumanely exploited for their labor. The slave trade had a devastating effect not only on those involvedRead More Analysis of the Failure of Superior Bank and Trust Essay599 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Superior Bank amp; Trust nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The thrift financial Institution Superior Bank amp; Trust is one of the largest. It is located in Chicago and has many branches eighteen of which can be found in the Chicago area. It is owned by one of Chicagos wealthiest families the Pritzkers and Alvin Dworman a well-known real-estate investor from New York. With assets totaling $2.3 billion and deposits of $1.6 billion Superior Bank FSB got caught up in some problems with sub prime loansRead MoreGovernment Bailout for Corporate Failures Essay1458 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGup (2003) brings out that financial trouble is a periodical concern that occurs to banks, industrial companies and other organizations. Gup begins his article by reviewing the history and importance of government bailouts for corporate failures. In his article on Ã¢â¬Å"What Does Too Big to Fail Mean?Ã¢â¬ he uses rhetoric questions in order to engage the readers in his analysis of government bailouts. For instance, he poses the question, Ã¢â¬Å"what should governments and government regulators do about it?Ã¢â¬ (GupRead More Success at Work Essay examples667 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesreal story happened with Mohammed and Abdullah can illustrate the term Success at Work. Mohammed and Abdullah graduated from the college of commerce and economics in 2000. Mohammed got a job in a global oil company and Abdullah got a job in a global bank. From the first day, Mohammed started working effectively. He was always putting his goals and then putting a lot of efforts in achieving those goals. That is, he was accomplishing his work tasks and responsibilities completely and creatively. In