Thursday, August 27, 2020

Why Trenches Were Used in World War I

Why Trenches Were Used in World War I During channel fighting, contradicting armed forces lead fight, at aâ relatively short proximity, from a progression of trench dove into the ground. Channel fighting becomes essential when two armed forces face an impasse, with neither side ready to progress and surpass the other. Despite the fact that channel fighting has been utilized since antiquated occasions, it was utilized on a phenomenal scale on the Western Front during World War I. Why Trench Warfare in WWI? In the early long stretches of the First World War (late in the late spring of 1914), both German and French authorities foreseen a war that would include a lot of troop development, as each side tried to pick up or shield an area. The Germans at first moved through pieces of Belgium and northeastern France, picking up an area en route. During the First Battle of the Marne in September 1914, the Germans were pushed back by Allied powers. They thusly delved in to abstain from losing any more ground. Incapable to get through this line of safeguard, the Allies likewise started to burrow defensive channels. By October 1914, neither one of the armies could propel its position, essentially in light of the fact that war was being pursued in an altogether different manner than it had been during the nineteenth century. Forward-moving methodologies, for example, head-on infantry assaults were not, at this point powerful or doable against current weaponry, for example, automatic rifles and substantial mounted guns. This failure to push ahead made the impasse. What started as a brief technique advanced into one of the fundamental highlights of the war at the Western Front for the following four years. Development and Design of Trenches Early channels were minimal more than foxholes or trench, planned to give a proportion of security during short fights. As the impasse proceeded, be that as it may, it became clear that an increasingly intricate framework was required. The primary significant channel lines were finished in November 1914. Before that year's over, they extended 475 miles, beginning at the North Sea, going through Belgium and northern France, and closure in the Swiss boondocks. In spite of the fact that the particular development of a channel was controlled by the nearby landscape, most were worked by a similar fundamental structure. The front mass of the channel, known as the parapet, was around 10 feet high. Fixed with sandbags start to finish, the parapet likewise included 2 to 3 feet of sandbags stacked over the ground level. These gave insurance, yet in addition darkened a troopers see. An edge, known as the discharge step, was incorporated with the lower some portion of the jettison and permitted a warrior to step up and see over the top (as a rule through a peephole between sandbags) when he was prepared to shoot his weapon. Periscopes and mirrors were likewise used to see over the sandbags. The back mass of the channel, known as the parados, was fixed with sandbags too, securing against a back attack. Since consistent shelling and continuous precipitation could cause the channel dividers to fall, the dividers were fortified with sandbags, logs, and branches. Channel Lines Channels were dove in a crisscross example so that if an adversary entered the channel, he was unable to fire straight down the line. A commonplace channel framework incorporated a line of three or four channels: the bleeding edge (likewise called the station or the fire line), the help channel, and the hold channel, all assembled corresponding to each other and somewhere in the range of 100 to 400 yards separated. The principle channel lines were associated by conveying channels, taking into consideration the development of messages, supplies, and fighters and were fixed with security fencing. The space between the adversary lines was known as No Mans Land. The space changed however found the middle value of around 250 yards. A few channels contained holes underneath the degree of the channel floor, regularly as profound as 20 or 30 feet. The majority of these underground rooms were minimal more than rough basements, however a few, particularly those farther back from the front, offered more accommodations, for example, beds, furniture,â and ovens. The German burrows were commonly progressively advanced; one such hole caught in the Somme Valley in 1916 was found to have latrines, power, ventilation, and even backdrop. Every day Routine in the Trenches Schedules shifted among the various locales, nationalities, and individual units, however the gatherings shared numerous likenesses. Troopers were routinely pivoted through a fundamental arrangement: battling in the cutting edge, trailed by a period in the save or bolster line, afterward, a short rest period. (Those for possible later use may be called upon to support the cutting edge if necessary.) Once the cycle was finished, it would start once again. Among the men in the cutting edge, guard obligation was doled out in revolutions of a few hours. Every morning and night, not long before day break and sunset, the soldiers took an interest in a remain to, during which men (on the two sides) moved up on the shoot step with rifle and knife good to go. The remain to filled in as groundwork for a potential assault from the adversary during a period of day-first light or nightfall when a large portion of these assaults were likeliest to happen. Following the remain to, officials led an examination of the men and their gear. Breakfast was then served, at which time the two sides (all around along the front) received a short détente. Most hostile moves (beside mounted guns shelling and killing) were done in obscurity when troopers had the option to move out of the channels covertly to lead observation and do attacks. The general calm of the sunlight hours permitted men to release their allocated obligations during the day. Keeping up the channels required consistent work: fix of shell-harmed dividers, evacuation of standing water, the formation of new toilets, and the development of provisions, among other imperative employments. Those saved from performing day by day upkeep obligations included authorities, for example, cot bearers, expert marksmen, and heavy armament specialists. During brief rest periods, officers were allowed to rest, read, or compose letters home, before being doled out to another undertaking. Wretchedness in the Mud Life in the channels was nightmarish, beside the standard rigors of battle. Powers of nature acted like extraordinary a danger as the contradicting armed force. Substantial precipitation overflowed channels and made obstructed, sloppy conditions. The mud not just made it hard to get starting with one spot then onto the next; it likewise had other, increasingly desperate outcomes. Ordinarily, fighters got caught in the thick, profound mud; unfit to remove themselves, they regularly suffocated. The overrunning precipitation made different challenges. Channel dividers crumbled, rifles stuck, and troopers succumbed to the much-feared channel foot. Like frostbite, channel foot created because of men being compelled to remain in water for a few hours, even days, without an opportunity to evacuate wet boots and socks. In outrageous cases, gangrene would create and a troopers toes, or even his whole foot, would need to be cut off. Shockingly, overwhelming downpours were not adequate to wash away the rottenness and foul scent of human waste and rotting carcasses. Not exclusively did these unsanitary conditions add to the spread of malady, they likewise pulled in an adversary disdained by the two sides-the humble rodent. Huge numbers of rodents imparted the channels to fighters and, much additionally shocking, they took care of upon the remaining parts of the dead. Troopers shot them out of disturb and dissatisfaction, yet the rodents kept on increasing and flourished for the term of the war. Other vermin that tormented the soldiers included head and body lice, bugs and scabies, and huge multitudes of flies. As awful as the sights and scents were for the men to suffer, the stunning clamors that encompassed them during substantial shelling were unnerving. In the midst of an overwhelming torrent, many shells every moment may land in the channel, causing ear-parting (and dangerous) blasts. Hardly any men could try to avoid panicking under such conditions; many endured passionate breakdowns. Night Patrols and Raids Watches and assaults occurred around evening time, under front of dimness. For watches, little gatherings of men crept out of the channels and crawled their way into No Mans Land. Pushing ahead on elbows and knees toward the German channels and carving their way through the thick spiked metal on their way. When the men arrived at the opposite side, their objective was to draw near enough to accumulate data by listening in or to identify action ahead of time of an assault. Assaulting parties were a lot bigger than watches, enveloping around 30 warriors. They, as well, advanced toward the German channels, however their job was increasingly angry. Individuals from the striking gatherings outfitted themselves with rifles, blades, and hand explosives. Littler groups took on bits of the adversary channel, hurling in projectiles, and murdering any survivors with a rifle or pike. They likewise analyzed the assortments of dead German officers, scanning for archives and proof of name and rank. Expert marksmen, notwithstanding terminating from the channels, likewise worked from No Mans Land. They crawled out at first light, vigorously disguised, to discover spread before sunshine. Embracing a stunt from the Germans, British expert marksmen covered up inside O.P. trees (perception posts). These spurious trees, developed by armed force engineers, secured the riflemen, permitting them to shoot at clueless aggressors. Regardless of these techniques, the idea of channel fighting made it practically outlandish for either armed force to surpass the other. Assaulting infantry was eased back somewhere near the security fencing and bombarded out landscape of No Mans Land, making the component of shock improbable. Later in the war, the Allies succeeded in getting through German lines utilizing the recently concocted tank. Toxic substance Gas Attacks In April 1915, the Germans released a particularly vile new weapon at Ypres in northwestern Belgium: poison gas. H

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Healthcare †HR Class Essays

Medicinal services †HR Class Essays Medicinal services †HR Class Paper Medicinal services †HR Class Paper Social insurance benefits are a significant piece of the advantages and administrations gave to representatives. At present, representatives approach a few unique sorts of protection bundles. Every human services protection bundle has certain advantages and confinements. To all the more likely comprehend the substance and ramifications of social insurance protection, the three significant kinds of medicinal services protection bundles ought to be evaluated in detail. These incorporate clinical consideration programs, wellbeing projects, and representative help programs. Clinical Care Programs Regular protection Regular protection speaks to non-oversaw type medicinal services protection. â€Å"With traditional medical coverage, the back up plan takes care of your tab after treatment has been rendered† (Salley, 2005). Some customary social insurance protection bundles necessitate that safety net providers give appropriately filled structures to ensure repayment. Various sorts of cash based costs are the participant’s obligation; these incorporate charges that are not secured by a specific protection bundle, copayments, and the expenses that are viewed as outlandish by the back up plan. Wellbeing Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) The focal thought and the quintessence of HMOs is in offering the supposed incorporated essential consideration: patients have one essential consideration doctor who realizes them all around ok to give them complete consideration (Folland, 2006). Those selected into HMO bundles are obliged to pay month to month charges, joined with expenses for each visit of solution. Different masters can't be visited without the essential doctors referral. The most grounded advantage of HMOs is in low expenses and a wide scope of deductibles; HMOs are emphatically keen on keeping their patients sound, and give members amazingly powerful preventive consideration. Favored Provider Organizations Under Preferred Provider Organizations, members are spurred to visit one explicit medicinal services supplier. PPOs require paying deductibles. Members are offered limits when visiting masters and emergency clinics secured by medical coverage plan. Here, patients have more opportunity to choose, what office and what authorities they need to visit from the rundown of those secured by the arrangement. Be that as it may, seeing doctors outside the PPOs systems is generally unreasonably expensive (Folland, 2006). Purpose of Service Plans POS or Point of Service Plans is a half and half oversaw care alternative comparable in many regards to both PPOs and HMO designs and can be considered as something of a cross between the two (Salley, 2005). POS members are required to pick one essential consideration doctor, who will later allude them to different authorities. PPO’s furnish their members with the full rundown of advantages inside the secured system of authorities and human services units. Despite the fact that members can pick experts outside their protection organize, their coinsurance rates will be to some degree higher (Folland, 2006). Purchaser Driven Plans Customer Driven protection bundles permit their members picking their own doctors and medicinal services suppliers. CDP furnish members with adequate opportunity to control their human services costs and advantages. CDP typically include a three-level structure of social insurance installments; the individuals who didn't have human services costs during a year get an opportunity to set aside their cash. CDP additionally offer a full arrangement of emotionally supportive networks that assist members with picking the best human services supplier and screen their costs (Salley, 2005). Representative Wellness programs The main role of representative health programs is to upgrade worker prosperity, and to expand worker mindfulness about the significance of solid way of life. It is generally conceded that wellbeing programs considerably decline business social insurance costs and expenses (Hodge, 2007). Health programs offer a wide scope of preventive measures, including courses, screening methodology, exercise and unwinding classes, and so on. These projects don't give representatives any protection ensures, yet guarantee that workers give a valiant effort to forestall a wide range of conceivable wellbeing complexities. Worker help programs â€Å"Employee Assistance Program is a secret, present moment, guiding help for representatives with individual issues that influence their work performance† (Folland, 2006). EAP’s spread every single imaginable sort of close to home issues, including pressure, provocation, viciousness, or child rearing issues. All workers are given a chance to contact an EAP agent. EAP is another splendid case of a very much created set of preventive estimates that decline medicinal services hazards and forestall different wellbeing intricacies. References Folland, S. (2006). Financial aspects of wellbeing and human services. Prentice Hall. Hodge, J. (2007). Bringing down medicinal services premiums by expanding staff wellbeing: a staff health plan expanded the arrival on venture. Nursing Homes, 55 (11): 66-70. Salley, H. (2005). Medicinal services advantages and protection patterns. American Business Diary, 44 (7): 14-22.

Friday, August 21, 2020

College Essay Paper - Makes Sure You Are Prepared

College Essay Paper - Makes Sure You Are PreparedA college essay is a highly expected kind of paper that you will be required to write in your college course. Many colleges use this kind of essay as a first thing in their admissions process and if you are a student who is applying for admission in a college or university you may want to consider this kind of essay writing as part of your preparation.You will not find much help in preparing for the essays because the writing of an essay is not that difficult, you just need to remember that there are various kinds of topics you can write about. Students can write about many different subjects such as personal experience, history, culture, politics, or science. It all depends on what the writers are more comfortable with.The college essay is just one of the things that make up your application. Many students may have a hard time when it comes to writing the essays because they tend to be scared to admit their lack of knowledge. This can sometimes result in giving answers that you cannot completely trust or verify. There are also some essays where you may not have much knowledge on the topic at hand but you can still come up with something that is very well written.The essay is written in the same way that a novel is written and you will find many people who are even taking this writing as a writer's choice. Writing for the essays are very important because they will be read by those that matter and you may not know where they will be placed. If you are given an essay in a high school, this may be even more important because the level of education that you are at may be seen as your identity and you will be judged by this identity.One way of writing a good essay is to take a look at the style of a book that you admire. One can use this knowledge in the writing process and get it to flow better for you. You can also look at the structure of the book you are looking atto determine what style of essay would work best for you.Having some friends that know about the college essay paper would also help in the writing process. The knowledge that you have about the subject will be better if you have some more friends that are capable of answering your questions. This will not only give you knowledge but also help you to sharpen your skills as well. Your friends can also help you with your writing so you do not have to rely on yourself to help you.Be very careful when writing on the topic that you are not familiar with. It is very easy to miss a word or overlook a key point when you are writing about something that you are not familiar with. Take extra care in doing your research in order to avoid doing any mistakes in the writing process.When writing the essay, you will be required to use an idea and expand it into an entire story line or thesis. You will want to make sure that you do not get stuck on one idea. Follow the rules that are given to you but do not get too stuck because it is better to tr y to create a thesis that people can relate to than just a story.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Comparative Analysis Of Health Care Systems Essay

A Comparative Analysis of Health Care Systems: Germany v. The United States of America According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights announced by the United Nations in 1948, â€Å"Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing, medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.†[1] The definition of a health care system has been dynamic and progressive throughout the course of human history. It can be defined at both macro and microscopic levels of analysis and the system can vary substantially between different countries, political systems, societies, cultures, socio-economic classes, groups, families, and individuals.[2] As a system, there are many unique and interconnected segments that integrate together to serve a collective goal of maintaining the health well-being of the people. This is most typically accomplished through a combination of preventative, reactive, and follow-up care.[3] Health systems are culturally influenced, and can be sub-divided into three main categories, which include the professional (academic, or scientific formal school training), popular (individual, family and community based approach), and folk sectors (non-profession healing specialists).[2] In this paper, a health careShow MoreRelatedA Comparative Analysis of the Health Care System in France vs. the United States1318 Words   |  6 PagesA Comparative Analysis of the Health Care System in France vs the United States Introduction Everyone would agree that a good health system, above all, must contribute to good health. It is certainly not considered acceptable to protect or improve the average health of the population, if at the same time inequality worsens or remains high because the gain accrues disproportionately to those already enjoying better health. The responsibility of a health care system is also to reduce inequalitiesRead MoreComparative Analysis of the Health Care Systems Offered in the United States and Mexico4247 Words   |  17 PagesComparative Analysis of the Health Care Systems Offered in the United States and Mexico Comparative Analysis of the Health Care Systems Offered in the United States and Mexico Healthcare Comparison of United States and Mexico The objective of this report is to give a comparative analysis between the United States healthcare system and Mexicos. Its key focal point will be centered on the countries policies, how their various systems are financed, who provides healthcare, the costs ofRead MoreComparative Effectiveness And Quality Improvement Of Public Healthcare Systems Essay1113 Words   |  5 PagesGSPH5900 Comparative Effectiveness Quality Improvement of Public Healthcare Systems Fall 2016 Assignment I: Article Critique on â€Å"Comparative Performance of Private and Public Healthcare Systems in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review† Essentially, every country’s health care providers are categorized into either public or private. 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The comparison and contrast analysis touches base with the basic health outcomes and their statistics, including measures suchRead MoreCase Analysis : Systems Acquisition1220 Words   |  5 Pages The Case Analysis: Systems Acquisition Courtney Givler MHA 616 Health Care Management Information Systems Instructor Deborah Bertsch May 9, 2016 The Case Analysis: Systems Acquisition For several years, the healthcare industry has focused on information technology for advancements. Now many health care leaders are seeking more complex information management processes. Information technology has advanced health care from a paper-based industry to a virtual enterprise. Providers areRead MoreStrategic Planning At Mount Sinai Medical Center1497 Words   |  6 Pagesplanning begins at the top of the pyramid, it is more effective when it is carry out as a whole among other in the organization. Having a good internal control system in place protects an organization from high risk, fraud, and more. 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As defined by Medicare is: â€Å"a U.S. government program of hospitalization insurance and voluntary medical insurance for persons aged 65 and over and for certain disabled persons under 65†. This government based health insurance would still allow private insurance companies to stay in business. Another way Obama wants to change the health ins urance companies is to expand coverage and improve the care given. What this means is peopleRead MoreCase Analysis - Veterans Health Administration: Nsqip Program808 Words   |  4 PagesCase Analysis Veterans Health Administration: NSQIP Program Lora K. Jackson Keller Graduate School of Management IS66 July 16, 2011 Case Analysis - Veterans Health Administration: NSQIP Program Purpose of Study â€Å"The Veterans Health Administration: NSQIP Program† (Ball, Weaver, Kiel; 2004) was a physician-driven comparison study initiated by senior surgeons between 1991 and 1997, in which mortality and morbidity rates were â€Å"risk adjusted and compared to observed-to-expected ratios†

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Portrait Of A Pretty Young Girl - 946 Words

â€Å"A continual dripping on a rainy day and a quarrelsome wife are alike; to restrain her is to restrain the wind or to grasp oil in one’s hand†. (Proverbs 27:15-16 ESV) This is a story of a quarrelsome wife, a woman who will never be satisfied, no matter her station in life. The first two pages of this story tell of the desires of this girl, the desire to be envied, the desire for fine things. No matter how much wealth and fame a person has; it never ends up being enough. From the beginning of this story; the portrait of a pretty young girl is painted with the authors words. Pretty on the outside that is; on the inside it is the picture of a woman who has a burning desire for the things that only the rich can possess. Things like fine clothes, fine food, and pretty things around her. Her hunger for these things even caused her to turn her back on a friend from school; a young woman who was rich, and had the things that she needed so badly. She had let her lust for the finer things, turn her into an evil bitter person. Mathilde’s life was not as bad as she had convinced herself that it was. Even though she did not possess all of the things that she wanted, the third chapter of the story tells of her housekeeper and of the contempt that Mathilde had for her. When she was whining about having nothing to wear, her husband reminded her of the gown that she wore to the theatre. There was food on the table, and she had a husband that loved her. How many women would love to have theShow MoreRelatedWilliam Butler Yeats And A Portrait Of The Artist As A Young Man951 Words   |  4 PagesSailing to Byzantium by William Butler Yeats and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man by James Joyce both follow the lives of a character that struggles to fit into society and because of this apparent disconnection between themselves and the rest of the culture and society they come from they are ostracized and distance themselves from the regular norms and values of society. The motive for both main characters t o exile themselves and separate from the rest of society is apparent in their distasteRead MoreThe Hill By Sir William Drummond Stewart902 Words   |  4 Pagesbeautiful wilderness composed of vast mountain ranges and winding rivers. For majority of his career, Miller worked and lived in Baltimore. He then travelled to Paris in 1833 at the English Life School in Rome. Upon returning to America, he opened a portrait studio in Baltimore but had limited success. [2] In 1837, he moved to New Orleans, where a coincident encounter brought him and Stewart together. Stewart liked his work and invited him to accompany him as an expedition artist, which he gladly acceptedRead MoreSybil Vanes Symbolic Role in The Portrait of Dorian Gray by Oscar Wilde981 Words   |  4 Pageswill follow, giving a brief synopsis concluding the essays arguments. Wilde describes the younger Dorian Gray as a stunningly handsome young man, pure inside, untouched by corrupt influences and unaware of his own beauty. Dorian comes from a privileged background. He is hugely influenced by Lord Henry and by a book that Henry gives him. He views a self-portrait, which his friend Basil has painted, Dorian becomes acutely aware of his own transient youth and beauty. He wishes he could swap placesRead MoreSummaries of Fifty Shades of Gray, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, and Dracula799 Words   |  4 Pagescorrupt Dorian and forever change him to only act upon his own pleasures. Following this Basil completes the portrait of Dorian that he had been working on and presents it to him so that he can take it home for himself to look upon his beauty. After seeing this Dorian proclaims that he wishes that if only the painting could bear the burden of age and emotional decay while he himself remaind young forever. Over time Lord Henrys influence takes affect over Dorian and he begins to take action upon hisRead MoreThe Portrait Of Madame De Pompadour1451 Words   |  6 PagesI remember the precise moment I first laid eyes on the Portrait of Madame de Pompadour. At about ten years of age, my parents bought a book titled: Women who read are dangerous. This book depicted several paintings, sculptures and photographs of women reading, among which was the Portrait of Madame de Pompadour. The second I witnessed the detail and extravagance of the painting I fell in love with it. Luckily at the time I was living in Bavaria which coincidentally was also the current home of saidRead MoreComparing Pablo Picassos And Diego Velazquezs Las Meninas883 Words   |  4 Pagesshown in the dog and in the pictures behind the women because the dog you can see its muscles and tendons showing through the fur and in the pictures behind them you can see somebody’s arm reaching out to grab someone and you can also see in the portrait behind them that the hair is done on the women and the man has a collar on his shirt with a red drape behind them. This is only one of the things that are the same about Velazquez’s and Picasso’s paintings.Contrasting:Picasso’s painting and Velazquez’sRead MoreAnalysis Of Barbie Doll By Marge Piercy865 Words   |  4 Pageswho has only been seen for the different qualities of her appearance and not her many great personality traits. This girl is constantly put down and asked to change for the purpose of being more like other girls, but this prospect of having nothing left of herself has brought her to a dark place. This poem uses imagery and figurative language to explain that society often forces young women to change different aspects of themselves in order to be accepted and fit into the perfect mold. Piercy usesRead MoreLouise Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun1740 Words   |  7 PagesVigà ©e-Lebrun (1745-1842) exhibited her work at the French Royal Academy Salon, her capacity for painting portraits was widely appreciated aside from one that shocked the French people, the Marie Antoinette â€Å"en gaulle†. In the Marie Antoinette â€Å"en gaulle†, the young woman’s hair is adorned with an extravagant wide plumed hat and her fingers are delicately constructed around a rose bouquet. Vigà ©e-Lebrun’s portrait depicts Marie Antoinette in a loose muslin dress that the public assumed she wore to bed at nightRead MorePortrait Of A Lady By Khushwant Singh Chapter Summary CBSE Class XI XII CBSE Class 11 12 Study Materials Homework Help Extra Questions1287 Words   |  6 PagesMATHEMATICS PHYSICS Thursday, 4 July 2013 Popular Posts Portrait of a Lady by Khushwant Singh - Chapter Summary The Photograph by Shirley Toulson Chapter Summary Short Synopsis A photograph descries 3 stages. In the first stage, the photograph shows the poet s mother standing at the each enjoyi... Story in a Nutshell In this story, Khushwant Singh draws a pen picture of his grand mother. He describes how he had  spent  his childhood Portrait of a Lady by Khushwant Singh Chapter Summary with herRead MoreAdventure is Our there in the Short Story The Green Door by O. Henr925 Words   |  4 Pagesof a doctors office. Certain that he is destined for a special adventure, Rudolf enters a nearby building in search of a green door. The building is not very well lit, but on the second floor he finds a green door. He knocks on the door and a young girl answers. She is attractive, but very poor and hungry. She faints from hunger into Rudolfs arms. He carries her to her bed. Seeing her hunger and poverty, Rudolf runs out to buy food and milk for her. Then, when he is ready to leave, he promises

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

United States Rights Vs. Federal Rights - 3721 Words

After Independence from Britain, the southern and northern sections of the United States began to separate as they aged, mainly due to conflicts of interests. Even during the creation of the Unites States constitution, the founding fathers debated slavery. Slaves were considered 3/5ths of a person when regarding representation based on population. This lessened the amount of seats southern states would hold in the House of Representatives, lessening their influence on political matters before the civil war. The Northerners had a heavier influence on laws, leading to the passage of laws in their favor. The Northern section of the United States of America became focused on manufacturing while the southern sections became dependent on agriculture, mainly cash crops harvested by slave labor. Although the States rights versus Federal rights conflict played a role in the cause of the Civil War, a major contributing factor was the institution of slavery and how it should be implemented in t he United States. The issue of slavery in the Western Territories was debated since the acquisition of new territory from Mexico after the Mexican-American War. The Wilmot Proviso was introduced to prevent slavery from expanding into any territory gained from the Mexican Cession. The Wilmot Proviso never passed and compromise between slave states and free states was not reached until the compromise of 1850, which was negated by the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. The Fugitive Slave Act,Show MoreRelatedHow America Should Perceive The Second Amendment Essay1139 Words   |  5 Pagesperceive the second amendment. Many view the second amendment as outdated, irrelevant, or possibly dangerous in today’s society. Others believe the founding fathers’ beliefs and reasons for including the right to bear arms are often misinterpreted resulting in a fight to protect its place in the Bill of Rights. The pushers for more gun laws and the NRA are in unending debate on whether or not t he second amendment continues to be relevant today. In order to understand each side’s perspective, one must knowRead MoreThe Role Of The Supreme Court Plays On The Policymaking Process Essay1356 Words   |  6 PagesActivism and Judicial Restraint. Explain 5 Amendments in the Bill of Rights. How does a society balance possible contradictions and inconsistencies with respect to national security, and the rights of the individual? Discuss some of the conflicts, issues and problems that arose during the Civil Right s movement in the 1950 s and 1960 s, as well as current Civil Rights issues. The Supreme Court is the highest level of the federal court system. It consists of nine justices, including a chief justiceRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Ownership1502 Words   |  7 Pages Despite the harms associated with handguns, the Second Amendment, which states that â€Å"A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed†, protects the private ownership of them. The Supreme Court has consistently ruled against gun bans or regulations as violating the 2nd amendment. In the landmark ruling Heller vs. District of Columbia in 2008, the Supreme Court ruled that a thirty-two year ban on theRead MoreThe Civil Liberties Of The United States Essay1513 Words   |  7 PagesCivil liberties is the individual rights and freedoms that government is obliged to protect, normally by not interfering in the exercise of these rights and freedoms. However, over the years the rights for the people h ave either have become open and free or it has become restrictive. The bill of rights in terms of scope in civil liberties protection has changed by three paths such three paths are increased in authority of federal government, the Supreme court shifted its interpretation of constitutionalRead MoreThe Right to Bear Arms1866 Words   |  7 Pageshighlighting the second amendment, I will focus mostly on the right to bear arms. The Second Amendment states, â€Å" A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.† I think that the founders put this in the constitution to keep the sense of freedom they had in England concerning arms, and other than a small force of paid officers, the United States had no professional, trained army. Instead it relied almostRead MoreHandguns Should Not Be Banned Handguns1677 Words   |  7 Pagesfor a complete ban on the private ownership of handguns. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Unbreakable Protagonist David Dunn Essay Example For Students

Unbreakable Protagonist David Dunn Essay Weve all seen the typical superhero in every superhero film. Theyre all similar in a way and we dont realize it. They all go through similar stages of becoming a hero. David Dunn, from the film Unbreakable? is the so called superhero? of the film. This main superhero was rather different than other heroes. There were differences and similarities, which almost made the film quite unique. It didnt feel like your typical action filled superhero movie. Instead, it was a more realistic approach to the modern hero ? of this century. In the history of all superheroes, most of them become a hero out of their own will. But this will doesnt come empty-handed. Theres always some grief, sacrifice, or loss to persuade the powerful being into becoming stronger. Some do it to seek out of revenge; others may do it to save the world from tragedies. These superheroes are always lonely. Most of them live alone, dont have parents, and hide themselves from the rest of the world. This was only the standard of most heroes. When we think of a sacrifice, we think of an individual losing his/her parents, or some sort of damage/curse to the environment. This is what drives the individual to undergo changes to become this hero in the state of mind. Campbell describes this as a part of an individuals life that separates them from everyone else. For example, if a child saw his parents die, he would lose part of his childhood and move on to adulthood. That child would separate his perspective towards life compared to every other child normally would. He could lose their humanity and become this powerful being, not afraid of his enemies or the risk for his revenge. People like Batman who lose their parents to an enemy, seeks out revenge by using money and technology. Something like this could easily motivate a person to get their hands dirty and save lives. In Joseph Campbells Interview with Bill Moyers, the discussion of heroes and their heroic journeys are told. The hero? undergoes certain aspects to become this hero character. Some of these aspects include corruption, purification, and polarity. A hero has to have some sort of drive and dedication, or purpose for fulfilling such a difficult role. Its not easy at all. There needs to be more than dedication. Anyone can have a purpose, but do they have what it takes? Are they afraid? Can they really be of any use to humanity? In Unbreakable, David Dunn didnt lose any parents, didnt seek out revenge, or lose something precious to him. Instead, it was his son who pushed him to attempt to abuse his supernatural abilities. Soon afterward, he would test those abilities by saving people and hurting bad guys. This was more of experimentation rather than a motivation to help people. Its different from the typical superhero, but was still a method to save lives. Its not easy to persuade somebody to risk their lives to save lives. But because David didnt have much to lose, it was a good decision. What makes them a superhero might not be his/her power, but their own will to help others. Superhuman abilities are only part of the equation. Something that intrigued me about Unbreakable was the fact that David Dunn didnt have any special abilities to fight with. His only ability would be that hes nearly immortal (except from water) and cant get hurt. It gave a more realistic ability rather than some special power that would give it an unrealistic scene. Nowadays when you look at the news and hear stories of people saving others in certain accidents or tragedies, they get labeled as heroes?. They didnt use any superhuman powers to save lives. It was simply the will and kindness to risk your life to save others. During the interview, Campbell explains what water is; how it symbolizes a step or path to change. Its accepting the past and moving forward, like crossing a one way bridge. I think of the water as some sort of purification. The water purifies the hero to become different inside, to change his/her self to get out of danger. .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 , .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 .postImageUrl , .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 , .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40:hover , .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40:visited , .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40:active { border:0!important; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40:active , .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40 .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u43f469694ca30230805907b381781d40:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Steven Spielberg and Quentin Tarantino EssayLike his example of the Indian women who crossed the river, she had two choices to make: To move forward and survive, or to stay weak and fall to her death. She has a chance to make up her past mistakes by moving toward. In unbreakable, this seemed all too familiar. David Dunn, who has a weakness against water, falls right into a pool of water. This step of the journey is the hardest part. He nearly dies, and tries to get back up and almost fails. When he gets back up, hes going through this same process that Campbell describes it as. Its transaction of going down to the underworld and coming up. When David and his son go down to the basement to try and lift some weights, theyre going down to the underworld. When he comes back up, he feels more confident to himself. He comes back up as a different man. David has been through many similar and different aspects that most superheroes go through. Although he didnt have a loss that motivates revenge, his reasoning for saving lives was good enough. He goes through the same process of the underworld/water transaction and comes out a different man. His abilities may not be as unique like other heroes, but as long as he can save lives, hes still considered a hero.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Westjet Verses Air Canada

Introduction This paper aims at contrasting two airlines, Westjet and Air Canada in terms of their financial performance and survival. The two airlines are based in Canada. Westjet is a low cost airline operating mainly within Canada and North America.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Westjet Verses Air Canada specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It was founded in 1996 and has since been able to acquire a fleet of 88 modern aircrafts â€Å"flying to over 70 destinations in Canada, the US, the Caribbean and Mexico† (Westjet, 2011). As at 31 December 2010, the firm had employed over 8000 workers. Westjet is one of the most profitable airlines in North America besides being associated with the best customer services. Air Canada on the other hand is the largest full-service airline in Canada (Air Canada, 2011). It is the largest provider of passenger flights within Canada and from Canada to major destinations such as US. It was founded in 1937 and has since achieved the status of â€Å"15th largest commercial airline globally† (Air Canada, 2011). As at 31 December 2010, the firm had employed 23200 workers. Currently, it serves 178 destinations directly and 1160 destinations in conjunction with its regional partners (Air Canada, 2011). The factors that affect the performance of these airlines are as follows. Factors in Airline Business: PESTE Analysis Political Canada is one of the most politically stable countries in the world. The political stability has enabled the country to achieve rapid economic growth. This has led to high demand in the country’s aviation industry (Cotis, 2010, pp. 3-20). Canada has strong political ties with most foreign countries thus enabling it to enjoy favorable terms of trade with them. Besides Canada is a member of major trade agreements and trading blocks such as NAFTA, Canada-Israel Free Trade Agreement and Canada-European Free Trade Association of Trade Agreement. This has enabled Canadian airlines to join the markets operating under the trade agreements thus increasing their market shares (Clougherty, 2009, pp. 440-468).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Air Canada has particularly improved its profitability in the cargo flight business due to the increase in trade volume among NAFTA member countries. Currently, Canada is negotiating for more ‘free trade agreements’ with Asian countries and this will further increase demand for its airlines. Economic Canada has â€Å"the 9th largest economy in the world† (Cotis, 2010, pp. 3-20). Its economy has since recovered from the 2008/2009 global financial crisis. Currently, its economy is growing at a rate of 5.6% which has resulted into high economic activity and high disposable income among the citizens (Cotis, 2010, pp. 3-20). This has led to high dema nd in its aviation industry. Besides, its low inflation rate of 1.6% as at 31st December 2010 has led a reduction in air ticket prices thus stimulating demand for flights (Cotis, 2010, pp. 3-20). The airlines have been able to access cheap supplies such as petroleum due to the low inflation. This enables them to improve their competitiveness at international level through low prices. Robust economic growth in emerging economies in Asia and South America has also led to high demand for flights at international level. Social Canada has one of the wealthiest populations in the world. Canada’s GDP per capita by â€Å"purchasing power parity is $43100† (Cotis, 2010, pp. 3-20). Over 90% of its population lives above the poverty line (Cotis, 2010, pp. 3-20). Consequently, majority of Canadians especially those living in urban areas are able to afford flights. Besides, the citizens are price sensitive and this explains the high pressure on prices in the aviation industry. Cana dians are keen on service quality and this has prompted most airlines to focus on product differentiation (Wulung, 2008, pp. 178-185). Westjet in particular is distinguished in the market as the best provider of customer services. Technology Technology is the driving force in the aviation industry since it determines the ability of the airlines to meet safety standards, achieve innovation and product development. Both Westjet and Air Canada have invested in modern technology to differentiate their products.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Westjet Verses Air Canada specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example Air Canada’s customers can book and confirm the status of their flights through their mobile phones (Air Canada, 2011). Both companies are using their websites for sales and marketing. Investments in modern aircrafts enable the firms to ensure the safety of their passengers. Besides, the modern aircr afts are efficient in fuel consumption thus lowering costs. Environment Air transportation is associated with air pollution due to the green house gases produced by aircrafts (Forsyth, 2010, pp. 204-255). Consequently, the industry regulators and environmentalist have teamed up to ensure that airlines operate aircrafts that are mechanically sound in order to avoid pollution. Airlines normally pay for air pollution through emission fines or fees. They also actively engage in environmental protection programs. This results into high operating costs. Legal Legal factors refer to the rules used to regulate the Canadian aviation industry. The industry is highly regulated in order to promote fair competition and customers’ safety. Regulation focuses on the mechanical status of the aircrafts, routes to be served and ownership of airlines (Competition Bureau, 2010). The implementation of the Competition Act for instance, forced Air Canada to reduce its market share in order to reduce its dominance in the industry (Competition Bureau, 2010). SWOT Analysis Westjet  Strengths Westjet is associated with the following strengths. First, it is the best in the provision of customer services. For example, it was â€Å"named a J.D power house in 2011† (Westjet, 2011). Excellent customer services have enabled it to ensure customer loyalty. Second, it has been able to maintain competitive prices. Consequently, it has been able to easily penetrate the market. Third, investment in modern aircrafts has enabled the firm to lower its expenditure on fuel. Finally, it was â€Å"inducted into the corporate hall of fame in 2010 after being named one of Canada’s most admired corporate culture† (Westjet, 2011) for three consecutive years. This means that it has excellent management polices and this explains its robust economic performance.Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Weaknesses Westjet’s weaknesses are as follows. It has a relatively small market share as compared to Air Canada. It serves only 78 destinations as compared to the 1167 served by Air Canada. This limits its ability to realize high returns. It also offers a limited number of products. It mainly concentrates on passenger flights, accommodation and car rental services (Westjet, 2011). Besides, it mainly operates in US, the Caribbean and Canada. Thus it is likely to be adversely affected in the vent of an economic crisis in the region it serves. Opportunities The opportunities available to Westjet include the following. First, the implementation of the Competition Act has led to elimination of monopolistic tendencies such as predator pricing in the industry. This gives it the opportunity to sell its products at optimal prices. Second, Air Canada has given â€Å"42 peak hours slots at Toronto’s Passengers’ Airport† (Competition Bureau, 2010). Thus Westjet has the opportunity to use the slots forfeited by Air Canada to connect to East Canada. Finally, its partnerships with American airlines give it the opportunity to increase its route network by using its partners’ aircrafts to connect its passengers to destinations it does not serve (Westjet, 2011). Threats Westjet faces the following threats. First, Air Canada has always used its dominant position to prevent competition in the industry (Competition Bureau, 2010). Thus Westjet will have to depend on Competition Bureau’s ability to enforce fair competition in order to penetrate the market. Second, increase in oil prices has resulted into a reduction in the firm’s profits. Finally, restriction on airline ownership limits the firm’s ability to expand through partnerships with foreign airlines. Air Canada Strengths Air Canada is associated with the following strengths. First, it has the largest market share of about 57% (Competition Bureau, 2010). This has enable d it to achieve high returns and profitability. Second, it offers a wide range of products which include car rental services, accommodation, cargo flights and specialized flights for sports organizations and private companies. This has enabled it to increase its revenue and market share. Third, it has modern aircrafts with an aircraft age of 10.7 years (Air Canada, 2011). Besides, its aircrafts have the best entertainment and on-flight communication systems. Consequently, it was voted the best airline by Skytrax in 2010. Finally, it enjoys economies of scale since it is a member of the Star Alliance. It connects its passengers to various destinations through airlines in the alliance at low costs. Weaknesses Air Canada’s weaknesses are as follows. It has not been able to maintain its market share following the implementation of the Competition Act. Its market share has since reduced from 70% in 2000 to 57% in 2010 (Competition Bureau, 2010). As a network airline, it has been a ssociated with customer dissatisfaction due to the inconveniences attributed to inefficiencies of airline alliances. Connecting passengers through Star Alliance’s airlines has always been characterized by flight delays, several stopovers and inconsistent baggage rules. Opportunities The opportunities available to Air Canada include the following. First, the world economy is already recovering from the 2008/2009 financial crisis (Franke and John, 2010, 19-26). Besides, emerging economies are realizing high economic growth. These trends have led to high demand for flights at the international level. Thus Air Canada has the opportunity to increase its revenue by taking advantage of the high demand. Second, most domestic airlines in Canada have failed to expand their operations due to their poor financial performance. Thus Air Canada has the opportunity to expand its operations by acquiring the underperforming airlines. Finally, deregulation at international level especially in E urope is an opportunity to Air Canada to join the deregulated markets hence increasing its market share (Morrell, 2008, pp. 61-67). Threats Air Canada faces the following threats. Firsts, fluctuations in oil prices have adversely affected its performance by increasing operating costs. Second, fluctuation in foreign exchange rates results into a reduction in its profitability. For example, the strengthening of the Canadian dollar in 2010 resulted into high prices for Air Canada’s products at the international market thus lowering demand for its flights (Air Canada, 2011). Finally, with the implementation of the Competition Act, Air Canada will have to continue reducing its market share in order to enhance competition in the market. This will lower its profitability. Analysis of Possible Future Trends Factors likely to Influence Future Performance First, technological advancement in aviation industry as well as information and communication industry will determine performance. Such technological advancements will influence operations such as ticketing, customer services and efficiency of aircrafts. Second, oil prices will influence performance in future. Fuel costs form the greatest percentage of operation cost in aviation industry (Trethway, 2004, pp. 3-14). Thus if the prices of oil keeps rising, the demand for flights will reduce as operators pass the high oil prices to customers through high prices. Third, economic performance both at domestic and international level will affect performance. Strong economic growth will ensure robust growth in the aviation industry. Finally regulation and competition will determine the performance of airlines (Daraban and Fournier, 2008, pp. 15-24). High competition and regulation is likely to reduce growth in the industry. Actions to be taken by the Airlines The following actions can be taken by the two airlines to overcome turbulent times in future. First, they can â€Å"enter into fuel hedging contracts† (Tre thway, 2004, pp. 3-14) in order to reduce their vulnerability to fluctuations in oil prices. Through such contracts, the firms will pay fixed fuel prices thus enabling them to control their fuel costs. Second, they can focus on maintaining competitive operating costs (Hazeldine, 2010, pp. 40-43). This can be achieved by acquiring modern aircrafts that are efficient in fuel consumption. Third, Westjet can join an airline alliance while Air Canada can increase its participation in Star Alliance. This will enable them to increase their market share in future at low costs. Fourth, in order to overcome the effects of poor economic performance, the airlines can diversify their businesses by investing in other industries. During the 2008/2009 global financial crisis, German’s Lufthansa survived since it was able to boost its passenger flight segment with revenue from its mining and real estate business segments (Hazeldine, 2010, pp. 40-43). Finally, they should focus on joining dere gulated markets in order to pursue their expansion plans effectively. Airline Product and Marketing Strategy Marketing Strategy Westjet’s marketing strategy focuses on maintaining low prices and providing excellent customer services. It charges low prices in order to penetrate the market and achieve its objective of being one of the top five largest airlines in Canada by 2016 (Westjet, 2011). It focuses of excellent customer services in order to ensure customer loyalty. This has been achieved by introducing new products and services such as non-stop flights and pre-reserved seating. Air Canada’s marketing strategy focuses on product differentiation in order to maintain its dominant position in the market. This is being implemented as follows. First, the firm has introduced innovative pricing system which allows customers to â€Å"customize their tickets by paying only for services they wish to pay for† (Air Canada, 2011). This leads to low prices and high custom er satisfaction. Second, the firm is focusing on high service quality. It has since completed its purchase of new aircrafts and refurbishing its existing aircrafts. Its aircrafts are associated with comfort, memorable entertainment experiences and safety. This has enabled it to retain its existing customers. Brand Equity Air Canada has the highest brand equity in the industry due to its dominant market position. Through its high quality products, most customers identify with it as the best airline in the region (Air Canada, 2011). The high level of brand equity has been achieved through investing in product differentiation. Westjet’s brand equity is relatively low as compared to Air Canada’s. Even though the firm is distinguished in the market by its low prices and excellent customer services, its brand equity has not improved due to the following reasons. First, it serves very few destinations and thus not used by many customers (Westjet, 2011). Second, it offers only a few services thus most customers find it inconvenient. Marketing Channels The airlines use similar marketing channels. The internet is the main marketing channel used by the airlines. They all have marketing websites through which customers can access product information, make enquiries and purchase tickets instantly. They also use social networks to market their products. Air Canada has recently introduced marketing through mobile phones (Air Canada, 2011). The two airlines also post their adverts on both print and electronic media. Competitors At domestic level, Air Canada lacks intense competition especially in the full service segment of the industry. However, it competes with low cost airlines such as Canada 3000 and Westjet. At international level, it competes with major airlines such as Delta, Emirates and Lufthansa (Trethway, 2004, pp. 3-14). Westjet’s competitors in the low cost segment include Canjet, Royal and Canada 3000. Frequent Flayer Program Both airlines h ave frequent flyer programs. Westjet’s is referred to as frequent guest program (Westjet, 2011). The program allows Westjet’s customers who spend over $1500 dollars to earn ‘Westjet dollars’ which they can use to purchase Westjet tickets. The program has no restrictions on destinations. Air Canada’s is referred to as the rapider program (Air Canada, 2011). In this case, the airline’s customers can earn a minimum of 3000 miles and a maximum of 25,000 miles by flying with Air Canada regularly. However, the bonuses can only be used on limited routes such as Montreal, Toronto and Pearson. Assessing of Success of Marketing Strategy Passengers usually chose Westjet due to its low prices and unparalleled customer services in the industry. As discussed earlier, low prices and best customer services are the factors that differentiate Westjet. Thus these factors form its main selling point in the market. The firm’s marketing strategy led to an i ncrease in load factor by 1.2 points to 79.9% in 2010 (Westjet, 2011). Passengers normally chose Air Canada due to the wide range of products it offers and the high quality of its services. From earlier discussions, Air Canada is differentiated by its service quality and the wide variety of products it offers. Thus these are its main selling points. The marketing strategy enabled it to increase its load factor by 1point to 81.7% in 2010 (Air Canada, 2011). Product Lifecycle Airline products are at maturity stage due to the following reasons. First, there is high pressure on prices as competition increases (Trethway, 2004, pp. 3-14). Second, there is an increase in the number of firms joining the industry following the removal of entry barriers. Third, firms are able to lower operating costs by joining airline alliances and forming regional partnerships (Trethway, 2004, pp. 3-14). Finally, the firms highly depend on product differentiation in order to increase or maintain their marke t shares. Business Model Low Cost Model The low cost model is associated with low prices which help in increasing the sales volume, market share and profits (Graham, 2009, pp. 306-316). It is also associated with greater emphasis on efficiency in order to lower operating cost and ticket prices. Finally it encourages fast turnaround time and full utilization of aircrafts (Graham, 2009, pp. 306-316). However, the flights are less comfortable as airlines cutback on the number of services they offer in order to reduce costs. This can lead to customer dissatisfaction. Besides, emphasis on cost reduction makes product differentiation difficult. Full Service Model The full service model is associated with high product quality which leads to customer satisfaction. The airlines using this model are able to offer a wide variety of services thus increasing their profits (Graham, 2009, pp. 306-316). However, maintaining the high quality of services leads to high cost of flights which can reduce demand. These trends indicate that both models have merits and demerits and the choice of the airline depends on the customers’ preferences and financial capabilities. Thus airlines can adopt both of them to increase their competitiveness. Financial Results Westjet In 2010, Westjet’s total revenue increased by 14.4% to $2.6 billion (Westjet, 2011). The firm’s operating margin also increased by 0.3 points to 9.5%. The firm’s net profit in 2010 was $136.7 million, representing a 39.3% increase from previous year’s results (Westjet, 2011). Load factor improved by 1.2 points to 79.7%. The company’s â€Å"current asset over current liability ratio improved to 1.52† (Westjet, 2011) as compared to 1.48 in 2009. The debt-to-equity ratio was 1.39 representing a 28% improvement (Westjet, 2011). In 2009, total revenue decreased by 10.5% to $2.3 billion (Westjet, 2011). The operating margin also dropped by 4 points to 6%. Net profit decreased by 45% to $98.2 million (Westjet, 2011). The firm’s load factor was 78%, representing a decrease of 1.4 points. â€Å"Current asset to current liability ratio† (Westjet, 2011) improved to 1.48 as compared to 2008’s 1.24. Adjusted dept-to-equity ratio also improved by 20.15 to 1.43 (Westjet, 2011). In 2008, the firm’s total revenue increased by 19.9% to 42.5 billion (Westjet, 2011). However, operating margin dropped by 1.1 points to 10.0%. Net profit decreased by 7.6% to 178.1 million (Westjet, 2011). The diluted earnings per shared also decreased by 6.8%. Air Canada In 2010, total revenue increased by 11% to 10.7 billion (Air Canada, 2011). The firm’s net profit was $107 million as compared to a loss of 24 million realized in 2009 (Air Canada, 2011). Load factor improved by 1 point to 81.7% while its yield improved by 2.3 points (Air Canada, 2011). In 2009, the firm realized 9.73 billion in total revenue which was 12% less than 2008’s total re venue (Air Canada, 2011). Consequently, the firm realized a loss of $24 million. The firm’s yield reduced to 7.6%, while the load factor reduced to 80.7% (Air Canada, 2011). The above trends indicate that Westjet has been profitable for the last three years. Besides, it is more financially stable. Air Canada on the other hand was not able to withstand the effects of the 2008/2009 global financial crisis. This explains the huge losses it made in 2008 and 2009. Thus Westjet is performing better financially. Conclusion and Recommendations The SWOT analysis reveals that Westjet’s main strengths are its ability to maintain low prices and excellent customer services (Westjet, 2011). Its main weakness is that it has a small market share. The main opportunity available to it is the removal of anti-competition tendencies in the market while the greatest threat facing it is the high competition in the market. Air Canada’s main strength is its large market share while its weakness is its inability to retain its market share (Air Canada, 2011). The greatest opportunity available to it is the rising demand for flights at the international market while its greatest threat is high regulation. The main factors likely to affect the performance of the airlines in future include fuel costs, level of regulation and technological advancement. In order to remain profitable and competitive in the next twenty years, the airlines can adopt the following recommendations. They should focus on fuel hedging and acquiring modern aircrafts that are efficient in fuel consumption (Trethway, 2004, pp. 3-14). Besides, they should expand into new markets as well as diversifying their businesses. References Air Canada, 2011. Annual reports. [Online] Available at: . Clougherty, J. 2009. Domestic rivalry and export performance: theory and evidence from international airline markets. Canadian Journal of Economics. 42(2), 440-468. Competition Bureau, 2010. Competition Bureau enforcement approach in the airline industry. [Online] Available at: . Cotis, J. 2010. Benchmarking Canada’s economic performance. International Productivity Monitor. 13(1), pp. 3-20. Daraban, B. and Fournier, G. 2008. Incumbent responses to low-cost airline entry and exit: a special autoregressive panel data analyses. Research in Transport economics. 24(1), pp. 15-24. Forsyth, P. 2010. Environment and financial sustainability of air transport: are they incompatible? Journal of Air Transport Management. 17(8), pp. 204-255. Franke, M. and John, F. 2010. What comes next after recession? Airline industry scenarios and potential end games. Journal of Air Transport Management. 17(1), pp. 19-26. Graham, M. 2009. Different model in different space or liberalization optimization? Comparative strategies among low-cost carriers. Journal of Transport Geography. 17(4), pp. 306- 316. Hazeldine, T. 2010. Legacy carriers fight back: pricing and product differentiation in modern airline marketing. Journal of Air Transport Management. 17(1), pp 40-43. Morrell, P. 2008. Can long-haul low-cost airlines be successful? Research in Transport economics. 24(1), pp. 61-67. Trethway, M. 2004. Distortions of airline revenues: why the network airline business model is broken. Journal of Transport Management. 10(1), pp. 3-14. Westjet, 2011. Annual reports. [Online] Available at: . Wulung, G. 2008. Productivity growth in Canadian and US regulated industries. Canadian Productivity Review. 2(1), pp. 178-185. This report on Westjet Verses Air Canada was written and submitted by user Megan A. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Diary - Definition and Examples

Diary s A diary is a personal record of events, experiences, thoughts, and observations. We converse with the absent by letters, and with ourselves by diaries, says Isaac DIsraeli in Curiosities of Literature (1793). These books of account, he says preserve what wear out in the memory, and . . . render to a man an account of himself to himself. In this sense, diary-writing may be regarded as a type of conversation or monologue as well as a form of autobiography. Although the reader of a diary is usually only the author herself, on occasion diaries are published (in most cases after an authors death). Well-known diarists include Samuel Pepys (1633-1703), Dorothy Wordsworth (1771-1855), Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Anne Frank (1929-1945), and Anaà ¯s Nin (1903-1977). In recent years, growing numbers of people have begun keeping online diaries, usually in the form of blogs or web journals. Diaries are sometimes used in conducting research, particularly in the social sciences and in medicine. Research diaries (also called field notes) serve as records of the research process itself. Respondent diaries may be kept by the individual subjects participating in a research project. Etymology:  From the Latin, daily allowance, daily journal Excerpts From Famous Diaries Excerpt From Virginia Woolfs DiaryEaster Sunday, April 20th, 1919. . . The habit of writing for my eye only is good practice. It loosens the ligaments. . . What sort of diary should I like mine to be? Something loose knit and yet not slovenly, so elastic that it will embrace anything, solemn, slight or beautiful that comes into my mind. I should like it to resemble some deep old desk, or capacious hold-all, in which one flings a mass of odds and ends without looking them through. I should like to come back, after a year or two, and find that the collection had sorted itself and refined itself and coalesced, as such deposits mysteriously do, into a mould, transparent enough to reflect the light of our life, and yet steady, tranquil compounds with the aloofness of a work of art.(Virginia Woolf, A Writers Diary. Harcourt, 1953)I get courage by reading [Virginia Woolfs Diary]. I feel very akin to her.(Sylvia Plath, quoted by Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar in No Mans Land. Yale Univers ity Press, 1994) Excerpt From Sylvia Plaths DiaryJuly 1950. I may never be happy, but tonight I am content. Nothing more than an empty house, the warm hazy weariness from a day spent setting strawberry runners in the sun, a glass of cool sweet milk, and a shallow dish of blueberries bathed in cream. When one is so tired at the end of a day one must sleep, and at the next dawn there are more strawberry runners to set, and so one goes on living, near the earth. At times like this Id call myself a fool to ask for more . . ..(Sylvia Plath, The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath, ed. Karen V. Kukil. Anchor Books, 2000)Excerpts From Anne Franks DiaryNow Im back to the point that prompted me to keep a diary in the first place: I dont have a friend.â€Å"Who else but me is ever going to read these letters?†(Anne Frank, The Diary of a Young Girl, ed. by Otto H. Frank and Mirjam Pressler. Doubleday, 1995) Thoughts and Observations on Diaries Safires Rules for Keeping a DiaryFor people intimidated by their own diaries, here are a handful of rules:Four rules are enough rules. Above all, write about what got to you that day . . ..(William Safire, On Keeping a Diary. The New York Times, September. 9, 1974)You own the diary, the diary doesnt own you. There are many days in all our lives about which the less written the better. If you are the sort of person who can only keep a diary on a regular schedule, filling up two pages just before you go to bed, become another sort of person.Write for yourself. The central idea of a diary is that you are not writing for critics or for posterity but are writing a private letter to your future self. If you are petty, or wrongheaded, or hopelessly emotional, relax–if there is anybody who will understand and forgive, it is your future self.Put down what cannot be reconstructed. . . . [R]emind yourself of the poignant personal moment, the remark you wish you had made, your predictions about the outcome of your own tribulations.Write legibly. . . . Vita Sackville-West on Capturing Moments[T]he fingers which have once grown accustomed to a pen soon itch to hold one again: it is necessary to write, if the days are not to slip emptily by. How else, indeed, to clap the net over the butterfly of the moment? For the moment passes, it is forgotten; the mood is gone; life itself is gone. That is where the writer scores over his fellows: he catches the changes of his mind on on the hop.(Vita Sackville-West, Twelve Days, 1928)David Sedariss DiariesAt the start of my second year [of college]. I signed up for a creative-writing class. The instructor, a woman named Lynn, demanded that we each keep a journal and that we surrender it twice during the course of the semester. This meant that Id be writing two diaries, one for myself and a second, heavily edited one, for her.The entries I ultimately handed in are the sorts I read onstage sometimes, the .01 percent that might possibly qualify as entertaining: a joke I heard, a T-shirt slogan, a b it of inside information passed on by a waitress or cabdriver.(David Sedaris, Lets Explore Diabetes With Owls. Hachette, 2013) Research DiariesA research diary should be a log or record of everything that you do in your research project, for example, recording ideas about possible research topics, database searches you undertake, your contacts with research study sites, access and and approval processes and difficulties you encounter and overcome, etc. The research diary is the place where you should also record your thoughts, personal reflections and insights into the research process.(Nicholas Walliman and Jane Appleton, Your Undergraduate Dissertation in Health and Social Care. Sage, 2009)Christopher Morley on DiaristsThey catalogue their minutes: Now, now, now,Is Actual, amid the fugitive;Take ink and pen (they say) for that is howWe snare this flying life, and make it live.So to their little pictures, and they sieveTheir happinesses: fields turned by the plough,The afterglow that summer sunsets give,The razor concave of a great ships bow.O gallant instinct, folly for mens mirth!Type cannot burn and spar kle on the page.No glittering ink can make this written wordShine clear enough to speak the noble rageAnd instancy of life. All sonnets blurredThe sudden mood of truth that gave them birth.(Christopher Morley, Diarists. Chimneysmoke, George H. Doran, 1921) â€Å"I never travel without my  diary. One should always have something sensational to read  in  the train.†(Oscar Wilde,  The Importance of Being Earnest, 1895)It seems to me that the problem with  diaries, and the reason that most of them are so boring, is that every day we vacillate between examining our hangnails and speculating on cosmic order.(Ann Beattie,  Picturing Will, 1989)

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Supply Chain Management College Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Supply Chain Management College - Case Study Example This creates a bottle neck, which is translated in its inability to supply the eight-pack in the market. This creates a substantial loss in consumer sales which could have uplifted the numbers for the sales and marketing department. The inability to run in full capacity leaves some of its products unmanufactured. This can be seen as an opportunity cost for the company. Supply chain is indeed "one of the major areas for companies to gain a competitive edge" and operations is the first step (Lee, 2002). Efficient operations management allows the company to cut on costs through efficient labor and capital use and presents desirable products to the marketing people. The Seven Principles of Supply Chain Management suggests that to "develop a supply chain-wide technology strategy that supports multiple levels of decision making and gives a clear view of the flow of products, services, and information" (David L. Anderson, 1997). The system prepares the company in the short-term, the midterm and the long-term operations. For the daily transaction, this technology will be used to align the "supply" to the "demand" through "sharing of information on orders and daily scheduling" (David L. Anderson, 1997).

Friday, February 7, 2020

Ethical Research Practice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Ethical Research Practice - Essay Example There is considerable concern about consent issues in relation to groups perceived as 'vulnerable', i.e., where individuals have difficulties in giving initial and continued informed consent because of issues of 'competence'. Groups who are perceived as vulnerable include children and young people, people with mental health problems and people with learning disability. Ethics Committees generally ask that special consideration is given to the ways in which 'vulnerable groups' are accessed and give consent to participate in research to ensure that they understand what participation involves and are not coerced into taking part. The expectation is generally that the researcher should justify the importance of the research and the need to include 'vulnerable' populations and should identify the means whereby informed consent will be obtained - in many cases there will be an expectation that proxy consent (from a parent or relative) may be used to supplement the consent or assent from th e individual who is not seen as competent to give consent in their own right (Baez 2002). It has been argued that researchers should seek consent each time they collect data from a study participant to ensure that they are aware that data are being collected and that they are willing to continue participating in the study.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Grammar school Essay Example for Free

Grammar school Essay As I entered the trading post in a small border reservation community I passed two Navajo youth leaning against the wall, one leg propped behind them for support. They wore black tee-shirts, one declaring â€Å"Indian Pride on the Rise,† the other showing a heavy metal rock group â€Å"Twisted Sister. † Both wore high topped basketball shoes and hair free flowing to their shoulders. One spoke to me. â€Å"Hey, are you the lady who is talking to dropouts? You should talk to me. Im a professional dropout. † I did. And to many others. Their stories spoke of racial discrimination and rejection by teachers. â€Å"The way I see it seems like the whites  dont want to get involved with the Indians. They think were bad. We drink. Our families drink. Dirty. Ugly. And the teachers dont want to help us. They say, Oh, no, there is Another Indian asking a question because they dont understand. So we stopped asking questions. † Their stories spoke of the importance and power of families and the Navajo culture. â€Å"I go crazy worrying about my parents. They need me so us Navajo stick together. I feel kinda proud to be a Navajo. † And their stories spoke of academic and social marginalization in their classes and schools. â€Å"It was just like they wanted to put us aside, us Indians. They didnt tell us nothing about careers or things to do after high school. They didnt encourage us to go to college. They just took care of the White students. They just wanted to get rid of the Indians. † This article is about these Navajo and Ute youth who leave high school. In mainstream research the phenomenon of â€Å"dropping out† is commonly defined as an issue of individual failure (see Note 2). Youth â€Å"fail,† either academically or socially, to make it through school. The problem exists not because of deficiencies in the schools but rather because of deficiencies in individuals and families. Youth who leave school are described as deviant, dysfunctional, or deficient because of individual, family, or community characteristics. Solutions reside on remediating or changing youth and families to better â€Å"fit in. † After all, most youth do succeed in school, suggesting evidence of the school as an effective institution. This body of research ignores the barriers institutions themselves create for youth. Another line of research on dropouts has turned a critical eye towards the role the school and structural barriers play in creating the problem (see Note 3). The research reported  in this article follows this line of inquiry. A critical examination of the â€Å"place† of Navajo and Ute youth in their school and community reveals other reasons than just individual failure for â€Å"dropping out. † Structural factors restricting opportunities, in effect, â€Å"fail† youth. The decision to leave school can then be seen, in part, as a rational response to irrelevant schooling, racism, restricted political, social and economic opportunities, and the desire to maintain a culturally distinct identity. There are many similarities between Indian and other kinds of dropouts. In most  cases, the reasons for leaving school are alike. For example, nearly all dropouts say school is boring, teachers dont care, and school will not help them with what they want to do in life (LeCompte, 1987). Many come from substance abusing families. There are, however, differences between other dropouts and these Navajo and Ute school leavers that only become clear when examining the cultural context surrounding these youth. Cultural and structural factors that might be easy to overlook if only examining â€Å"student characteristics† are important in understanding why many Navajo and Ute youth leave school. Specific to this cultural framework are 1) racial and economic relations in the community and school, 2) home child-rearing patterns of non-interference and early adulthood and, 3) cultural integrity and resistance. The Data Base: Master Student List, Questionnaires and Ethnography In the fall of 1984 1 started an ethnographic study of a border reservation community. I looked at interactions, understandings, and strategies related to education, schooling, success, and failure both in and out of school, among and between three culturally distinct groups of adolescents—Anglo, Navajo, and Ute. Presented here is only one part of this ethnography, focused on school leavers. Throughout this article I use the tribal names, Navajo and Ute, in recognition of the distinctness of these two cultures. I use the term â€Å"Indian† in situations which include both Navajo and Ute for simplicity, not for stereotyping. In addition, fictitious names are used for both communities and schools. These results were produced from four data sets: 1) a master data base from school records; 2) ethnographic field notes and collected documents; 3) interviews with a  convenience sample of school leavers, and; 4) a questionnaire. In trying to determine an accurate picture of the attrition rates in this district, a data base was established to track all of the Navajo and Ute students by name who had attended Border High School (BHS) and Navajo High School (NHS) from 1980-81 to the 1988-89 school year. This master list contained attendance data, grade point averages, standardized test scores, dropout and graduation rates, community locations, current employment situations, post high school training, and type of diploma received for 1,489 youth. This list has been verified by official district records, local Navajo and Ute community members, school officials, and the youth themselves. The graduation and dropout rate in this community was determined by following â€Å"cohorts† of youth throughout their school careers. A total of 629 students forming six different cohorts, from the class of 1984 to the class of 1989, from each of the two high schools are represented with complete four year high school records. Students who took either additional years and/or completed alternative high school degrees are included in the total graduation figures.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Michael Lehmans Heathers and Steve Jodrells Shame :: Films Movies Film Movie

Michael Lehman's Heathers and Steve Jodrell's Shame Throughout time the concept of gender and the corruption of power associated with it has been a very evident problem within society. Many texts have been designed to expose these issues and in particular the feature films’ Heathers, directed by Michael Lehman and Shame, by Steve Jodrell. Both these films have been heavily constructed in order to position us as the audience to take a very negative response towards the concepts of power and gender and further an ‘anti-conform’ attitude. Techniques such as narrative elements and codes and conventions have been used to mould these ideas and attitudes within the texts. Both the films Heathers and Shame can be deemed to be modern day Westerns however are quite subverted. They both develop the idea that conformity leads to tragic consequences. Heathers is set in an American high school, Westerburg, in 1988 and attacks the idea of a high school hierarchy, where four girls particularly one, Heather Chandler, has the power within the school. On the arrival of a new student, Jason Dean, Veronica, one of the four girls breaks away and conforms to Jason. As a result she is led to kill Heather Chandler and later the ‘footy jocks’ to make their school a better place. Shame on the other hand is set in a small outback, Western Australian country town, Ginobrak, in 1987. It deals with the issues of a small town mentality and that ‘boys will be boys’. As result of these concepts and issues, many young girls were raped and the town accepted this. As Asta, an outsider coming into town, stumbles across these rappings’, she helps and encourages a young girl, Lizzie to face the boys and lay legal charges. In both texts it takes and outsider the ‘hero’ figure to expose the corruption and help in acting as a catalyst to change. Gender relationships are a very explored issue within these texts. In a majority, anyone no matter if they are male or female who do not fit in or do not conform to stereotypes to an extent, can be cast out by that group. Whether it is, their looks, their behaviour, the way they dress, or the way they think and feel, they are judged as different. This ‘outcast’ idea is portrayed in both the films. In the two feature films, the most obvious ‘outcasts’ would be the two ‘hero figures’ the intruders into the created microcosm. Michael Lehman's Heathers and Steve Jodrell's Shame :: Films Movies Film Movie Michael Lehman's Heathers and Steve Jodrell's Shame Throughout time the concept of gender and the corruption of power associated with it has been a very evident problem within society. Many texts have been designed to expose these issues and in particular the feature films’ Heathers, directed by Michael Lehman and Shame, by Steve Jodrell. Both these films have been heavily constructed in order to position us as the audience to take a very negative response towards the concepts of power and gender and further an ‘anti-conform’ attitude. Techniques such as narrative elements and codes and conventions have been used to mould these ideas and attitudes within the texts. Both the films Heathers and Shame can be deemed to be modern day Westerns however are quite subverted. They both develop the idea that conformity leads to tragic consequences. Heathers is set in an American high school, Westerburg, in 1988 and attacks the idea of a high school hierarchy, where four girls particularly one, Heather Chandler, has the power within the school. On the arrival of a new student, Jason Dean, Veronica, one of the four girls breaks away and conforms to Jason. As a result she is led to kill Heather Chandler and later the ‘footy jocks’ to make their school a better place. Shame on the other hand is set in a small outback, Western Australian country town, Ginobrak, in 1987. It deals with the issues of a small town mentality and that ‘boys will be boys’. As result of these concepts and issues, many young girls were raped and the town accepted this. As Asta, an outsider coming into town, stumbles across these rappings’, she helps and encourages a young girl, Lizzie to face the boys and lay legal charges. In both texts it takes and outsider the ‘hero’ figure to expose the corruption and help in acting as a catalyst to change. Gender relationships are a very explored issue within these texts. In a majority, anyone no matter if they are male or female who do not fit in or do not conform to stereotypes to an extent, can be cast out by that group. Whether it is, their looks, their behaviour, the way they dress, or the way they think and feel, they are judged as different. This ‘outcast’ idea is portrayed in both the films. In the two feature films, the most obvious ‘outcasts’ would be the two ‘hero figures’ the intruders into the created microcosm.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Radiological Threat to Public Safety

Radiation is a silent death sentence i. e. you cannot see, smell, or taste it. When radiological material ends up in the wrong hands it can become a catastrophic weapon of mass destruction. The public's security against radiological threats is in the hands of federal, state, and local government agencies. These agencies have the responsibility to regulate, mitigate, monitor, and respond to incidents involving sources of radiological materials. An analysis of current radiological threats will provide an improved understanding of potential and creditable radiological threats confronted by the public. Radiological Threat to Public Safety Newswire (2011) states, â€Å"Less than one-third of the population feels they are prepared for a terrorist attack, specifically a radiological attack such as a dirty bomb; yet over eighty percent of Americans feel this type of threat is imminent†. Howard & Forest (2008), suggest that a terrorist radiological attack would come by way of a radiological dispersal devise (RDD) or a dirty bomb i. e. a bomb mixed with radiological material and conventional explosives (p. 90). Oppenheimer (2008) states, â€Å"The threat of nuclear terrorism is far more likely from a radiological dispersal device (RDD)–a conventional IED laced with a radioisotope–than via a nuclear fission weapon†(para 1). Uranium and plutonium are well known elements used in nuclear devises. Howard et al. (2008) states, â€Å"Only uranium and a few other elements, notably plutonium, can be turned into explosive weapons, but many more elements emit radiation† (p. 90). Howard et al. (2008), states, â€Å"Two basic designs of crude nuclear explosives are likely to be adequate for most purposes of terrorist groups intent on nuclear terrorism†(p. 14). The first generation, gun-type nuclear explosive device is similar to the bomb that destroyed the city of Hiroshima, Japan. This is the simplest crude devise to design and construct with a powerful nuclear explosion (Howard et al. 2008, p. 114). The United States Department of Health and Human Services (2011) stipulates that the first step in understanding creditable radiation emergencies is to â€Å"draw the distinction between a nuclear event (like the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan) and a radiological event, such as a nuclear power plant incident or a radiological dispersal device (e. . , dirty bomb)†. The following is suggested credible nuclear and radiological events. Nuclear Events; * Produces a nuclear detonation involving the joining (fusion) or splitting (fission) of atoms to produce an intense pulse or wave of heat, light, air pressure, and radiation. * Highly destructive explosion that instantly devastates people and buildings because of extreme heat and impact of the blast. * Leaves large amounts of radioactivity and fallout behind. Radiological Events; * May involve explosion and release of radioactivity, but no nuclear fission. Typically, have less radioactivity released than in a nuclear event. In both events, the wind direction along with the weather patterns can spread radioactivity over a wide area (DHHS, 2008). Oppenheimer (2008), stipulated that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggested that â€Å"From 1993 to 2004, there were more than 400 confirmed incidents of trafficking materials–arrests and seizures involving radioactive sources–that could only be used to produce a RDD†(para 5). According to Howard et al. (2008) â€Å"no terrorist group has ever fielded or deployed a nuclear devise†(p. 110). However, Oppenheimer (2008) states, â€Å"Only one RDD incident is known: A dynamite bomb laced with cesium-137, a radioisotope used widely in medicine, was planted by Chechen separatists in a Moscow park in December 1995† (para 3). Authorities were able to find the terrorist RDD before it was detonated (Oppenheimer, 2008, para 3). The premise is evident i. e. terrorist organizations have the capability to obtain and deploy a RDD. Howard et al. (2008) suggest, â€Å"A homemade nuclear device, although crude and less efficient than a state military weapon, could very well serve the needs of a terrorist group† (p. 113). Bullock, Haddow, Coppola, & Yeletaysi (2009), describe different types of terrorist events that might include the use of radioactive material. * Introducing radioactive material into the food or water supply. * Using explosives to scatter radioactive materials. * Bombing or destroying a nuclear facility. * Exploding a small nuclear device† (p. 187). Oppenheimer (2008) described and highlighted the unpredictable radiological poisoning of a former â€Å"KBG agent Alexander Litvinenko by polonium-210 in London in November 2006 â€Å"(para 6). This type of radiation, once inhaled or ingested, will cause an illness that is slow and painful. The contamination spread as the Litvinenko moved about London and beyond (Oppenheimer, 2008, para 6). According to Oppenheimer (2008), â€Å"The U. K. Health Protection Agency had the unenviable task of tracing and testing the urine of hundreds of potential contacts and arranging for them to be treated and counseled†(para 6). There were a total of 17 people who were contaminated with radiation at above-average levels (Oppenheimer, 2008, para 6). Oppenheimer (2008) suggests that â€Å"A growing number of smuggling cases since 2002 have involved radioisotopes used in civilian industries and medicine†(para 2). Radioactive materials that are no longer considered useful in medicine could be used in building a RDD or a dirty bomb (The American Nuclear Society, 2005). Some agencies feel as though there has â€Å"not been enough of a concerted effort focused on the threat of a radiological attack such as a â€Å"dirty bomb† (Newswire, 2011). Oppenheimer (2008) describes four attempts at deploying RDD by Chechens i. e. â€Å"deploying an RDD and attacking a nuclear power plant, which are not well documented but are known within the EOD (explosives ordnance disposal) community†(para 1). Hawley (2008) suggests, â€Å"The use of a pharmaceutical grade radioactive material attached to a pipe bomb would release radioactive material†. In addition this small amount of radiation could cause sickness over time. Howard et al. (2008) states, â€Å"Extended exposure to low-level radioactive material increases the likelihood of cellular destruction†(, p. 90). The low level of security at many of Russia’s nuclear power plants and abandoned Russian Northern Fleet submarines has also increased the risk of possible terrorist attacks or takeovers. â€Å"There still are about 120 subs with fueled reactors in need of disposal† (Oppenheimer, 2008, papa 2). If a meltdown or explosion at a nuclear facility ever took place a large quantity of radioactive material would be released into the environment. Employees at the nuclear facility would likely be contaminated with radioactive particles to include injuries from the explosion itself. Individuals who received a large dose of radiation might develop acute radiation syndrome. Individuals in the surrounding area could be exposed or contamination and would need medical assists along with decontamination (Bullock, et al. 2009 p. 233). This huge concern and worry of radiological threats, voiced by the public, might not be credible. This is based on research and analyses performed by numerous agencies. According to Bevelacqua & Stilp (2009), â€Å"Bombings involving storage facilities or transportation vehicle pose the greatest threat†(p. 60). Mitigating potential bombings of critical facilities and transportation is a challenge for federal, state and local agencies. Bevelacqua et al. (2009) states† A nuclear bomb threat is unlikely to be carries out for a number of reasons, including the extreme expense, its logistical difficulty, and the enormous amount of technology necessary to develop a disperse such a devise† (p. 9). Hawley (2008) states, â€Å"The use of an actual nuclear detonation device is unlikely and very improbable given security these materials have† (p. 233). The amount of nuclear material required for an extensive nuclear result and the particular type of material needed makes use unlikely (Hawley, 2008, p. 233). Bullock, et al. (2009) states â€Å"Although a dirty bomb could cause serious injuries from the explosion, it most likely would not have enough radioactive material in a form that would cause serious radiation sickness among large numbers of people. Oppenheimer (2008) suggests, â€Å"There are numerous obstacles to overcome when weaponizing radioactive materials; the same devices that could be a threat to the public also pose potential threats to terrorists†(para 3). Howard et al. 2008, describe the seven myths identified about the threat of nuclear terrorism. 1. Terrorist want a lot of people watching, not a lot of people dead. 2. Nuclear material required to make a bomb are nearly impossible for terrorist to obtain. 3. Difficulties of constructing or stealing a nuclear bomb are unlikely by a terrorist group. 4. The only way a terrorist organization could acquire a nuclear bomb is from a state. 5. The mistaken belief that it is possible to put in place around the United States and other major countries a security cordon that can reduce to a low level the risk that nuclear weapons and material might be smuggled in. 6. The notion that an offensive security posture alone will mitigate the threat of nuclear terrorism. 7. A number of states analysts argue that states would not be especially interested in a stolen nuclear or stolen material to make one, because they want to produce the material for as many nuclear weapons as they need (p. 02). According to Shaw (2001) â€Å"Most studies of preventing terrorist nuclear attacks have reached the same basic conclusion–none of the available basic techniques is sufficiently capable to preclude a successful attack with a high degree of confidence† (p 3). The following are the seven suggested basic techniques: 1. Arms control and related diplomatic measures to control proliferation and access to technology and materials for making nuclear weapons. 2. Physical security and control of existing weapons and materials. 3. Pre-emptive actions. . Deterrent threats of retaliation for attacks. 5. Border controls and related domestic security measures aimed at preventing the movement of weapons or materials into the US. 6. Intelligence collection and law enforcement measures leading to the discovery and apprehension of would-be perpetrators. 7. Effective consequence control and mitigation—still a long way from reality—could be at best a distant second in desirability. Public education on the effects of radiation might allow for understanding the credibility of radiological events. Hawley (2008) states, â€Å"Education on hazards of radiation and the effective use of radiation monitors can ease this fear† (p. 234). There are organizations established to educate radiological protection, challenges, and issues. The Newswire (2011) states, â€Å"The Radiological Threat Awareness Coalition (R-TAC) was established to increase awareness and preparedness in this country against a possible radiological attack such as a â€Å"dirty bomb†(para 1) This synergistic awareness and preparedness was validated successfully by London government agencies responding to prevented a radiological event from becoming catastrophe. Oppenheimer (2008) suggests that the â€Å"London incident response demonstrate that government agencies could rapidly adapt to an unprecedented situation†(para 6). This radiological event also showed that nuclear events are all but impossible to predict. Conclusion The mitigation of nuclear weapons issues remain a heighten concern by free nations. The management of the existing stockpiles in the former Soviet Union continues to be a challenge in addition to the activities of the other governments that control nuclear weapons and demonstrate troublesome behavior especially, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran (Banks, Nevers, & Wallerstein, 2008, p. 7). According to Hawley (2008) â€Å"there is currently speculation that there are some small nuclear devises missing from Russia; but this has never been substantiated† (p. 233). However, the fear of missing nuclear devises is a weapon itself. According to Hawley (2008), there is an advantage to a noncredible RDD or a small RDD, and that is the public's reaction. The public's perception, and first responders, is that this event would be a radioactive disaster. However, the reality is that the amount of the radiation would not be dangerous, and as time passed, the danger would lessen as the radioactive material decayed to a lesser hazard. Radiation is one of the big unknowns and cause of fear because it is unknown. This fear makes radiation a key weapon for a terrorist organization. Given this analysis, the question continues to be asked. Is there a credible radiological threat? The answer is yes or maybe no. Either way terrorist organizations have instilled fear of possible radiological events in our nation's future.